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midterm 2 study guide

midterm 2 study guide - Learning definition of learning an...

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Learning definition of learning- an adaptive process through which experience modifies pre-existing behavior and understanding classical conditioning Pavlov’s experiment process of conditioning UCS, UCR, CS, CR discrimination extinction spontaneous recovery conditioned emotion response aversion learning (taste, e.g.) biopreparedness & the Garcia effect equipotentiality operant (Skinnerian) conditioning Thorndike’s law of effect punishment & reinforcement negative/positive schedules of reinforcement other aspects of learning latent learning insight learning social/observational learning vicarious conditioning Memory memory processes encoding, storage, retrieval levels of processing Craik & Lockhart’s levels structural phonemic semantic sensory memory & sensory registers short-term memory (STM) now called working memory maintenance vs elaboration duration of 20 seconds- short term memory only lasts 20 sec capacity of 7 +/- 2 items- max 9 min 2 chunking- grouping numbers so its easier to memorize Peterson & Peterson: forgetting in STM Memory, cont. long-term memory (LTM)- unlimited capacity, length, duration, storage serial-position curve primacy/recency effects- primacy- most frequently rehearsed, recency- is reduced the longer the period. Primacy example: going grocery shopping structure of LTM declarative/procedural
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implicit/explicit, etc. encoding specificity principle- certain info encoded in manner is best retrieved in that manner.
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