Wisewoman analysis final paper.docx - Running head How the...

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Running head: How the WISEWOMAN Program has improved hypertension in heart disease in women Joanna M. Larry-Harley PHE 525 Social and Behavioral Sciences Southern New Hampshire University
How the WISEWOMAN Program has improved hypertension in heart disease in women Hypertension is a significant risk factor in heart disease. The World Health Organization refers to it as the silent killer because it has no warning signs or symptoms, most people are unaware they have it (Ali, 2018). Hypertension is responsible for more than 30% of the deaths and mortality rate for people with heart disease worldwide (Ali, 2018). In the U.S. 1, out of 3 people have hypertension, and it affects 1, billion people worldwide as a chronic condition (Ali, 2018). It is a critical public health issue due to its high prevalence with many serious comorbidities. What is hypertension Hypertension (HTN) is when ample amount of pressure builds up in the blood vessels for extended periods of time. The American Heart Association (AHA) defines a normal blood pressure reading of (Systolic/diastolic) 110/70 (Ali, 2018). A systolic reading of 130 is considered prehypertensive and a systolic reading of 140 or higher is considered hypertensive (Ali, 2018). When blood pressure is elevated over a period, it causes damage to the blood vessels, kidneys, heart, and brain (Ali, 2018). Unfortunately, HTN has no warning symptoms or signs. The only way to check for it is through blood pressure measurements. Hypertension and comorbidities HTN is associated with an assortment of comorbidities such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, transient ischemia attacks, cerebral vascular attacks, and chronic kidney disease (Ali, 2018). Men are more at risk (47%) than women (43%) and in predisposed Hispanic non- black adults (54%) more than non-Hispanic white adults (46%) (CDC, 2019). HTN risk factors include age, race, ethnicity, genetics, family history, sedentary lifestyle, poor
How the WISEWOMAN Program has improved hypertension in heart disease in women diet, smoking and alcohol consumption, and obesity (Doyle, 2019). Sociopsychological risk factors consist of socioeconomic status, work-related stress, religious beliefs, environmental determinants, depression, unemployment, financial insecurity, poverty, uneducated, and social isolation (Cuffee, 2014; Matei, 2018). Tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity are also behaviors increasing negative effects of hypertension (Cuffee, 2014). Preventing hypertension Prevention of HTN is at a crucial point worldwide. Prevention strategies include behaviors that include a healthy diet, daily physical activity, not smoking, low alcohol consumption, and keeping blood pressure measurements within guidelines. Screenings for pre-hypertension are included in yearly wellness exams at the primordial or primary level to identify at risk patients and preventative action plans taken between clinician and patient. Secondary prevention methods consist of screening and pharmaceutical intervention by clinicians to control HTN. For many, lack of access to healthcare (due to rising costs) are barriers in promoting behavioral changes.

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