Running head: How the WISEWOMAN Program has improved hypertension in heart disease in womenJoanna M. Larry-HarleyPHE 525 Social and Behavioral SciencesSouthern New Hampshire University
How the WISEWOMAN Program has improved hypertension in heart disease in women Hypertension is a significant risk factor in heart disease. The World Health Organizationrefers to it as the silent killer because it has no warning signs or symptoms, most people areunaware they have it (Ali, 2018). Hypertension is responsible for more than 30% of the deathsand mortality rate for people with heart disease worldwide (Ali, 2018). In the U.S. 1, out of 3people have hypertension, and it affects 1, billion people worldwide as a chronic condition (Ali,2018). It is a critical public health issue due to its high prevalence with many seriouscomorbidities. What is hypertensionHypertension (HTN) is when ample amount of pressure builds up in the blood vessels forextended periods of time. The American Heart Association (AHA) defines a normal bloodpressure reading of (Systolic/diastolic) 110/70 (Ali, 2018). A systolic reading of 130 isconsidered prehypertensive and a systolic reading of 140 or higher is considered hypertensive(Ali, 2018). When blood pressure is elevated over a period, it causes damage to the bloodvessels, kidneys, heart, and brain (Ali, 2018). Unfortunately, HTN has no warning symptoms orsigns. The only way to check for it is through blood pressure measurements.Hypertension and comorbiditiesHTN is associated with an assortment of comorbidities such as heart failure, myocardialinfarction, diabetes mellitus, transient ischemia attacks, cerebral vascular attacks, and chronickidney disease (Ali, 2018). Men are more at risk (47%) than women (43%) and in predisposedHispanic non- black adults (54%) more than non-Hispanic white adults (46%) (CDC, 2019).HTN risk factors include age, race, ethnicity, genetics, family history, sedentary lifestyle, poor
How the WISEWOMAN Program has improved hypertension in heart disease in women diet, smoking and alcohol consumption, and obesity (Doyle, 2019). Sociopsychological riskfactors consist of socioeconomic status, work-related stress, religious beliefs, environmentaldeterminants, depression, unemployment, financial insecurity, poverty, uneducated, and socialisolation (Cuffee, 2014; Matei, 2018). Tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption, and physicalinactivity are also behaviors increasing negative effects of hypertension (Cuffee, 2014). Preventing hypertensionPrevention of HTN is at a crucial point worldwide. Prevention strategies include behaviorsthat include a healthy diet, daily physical activity, not smoking, low alcohol consumption, andkeeping blood pressure measurements within guidelines. Screenings for pre-hypertension areincluded in yearly wellness exams at the primordial or primary level to identify at risk patientsand preventative action plans taken between clinician and patient. Secondary prevention methodsconsist of screening and pharmaceutical intervention by clinicians to control HTN. For many,lack of access to healthcare (due to rising costs) are barriers in promoting behavioral changes.