phil001notesweek9.1 - Dr Mcs Philosophy 001 (1084) Lecture...

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1084001week9notes © 1 Dr Mc’s Philosophy 001 (1084) Lecture Notes, Week 9 © Second Midterm, Tuesday, 22 July, in-class It will cover all lecture material up to but not including correlations (i.e., until the end of tonight) and the text up to the end of Chapter 9, Section IV. Final Exam: Friday, 8 August, 19.00-22.00, in C9001. You must have official photo id Statistical Statements 1. Most SFU students have student loans. 2. The recovery rate from non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is good. 3. All ferns thrive in damp, cool conditions. 4. A credit agency is required to recover the money owed from 20% of the students who take out student loans. In each of these cases, there are (at least) three common features: (i) there is a subject matter of the sentence. This is the population of the statement. 1. SFU students 2. People with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 3. Ferns 4. students who take out student loans (ii) there is a feature attributed to members of the population in question. This is the property of the statement. 1. having a student loan 2. recovering from N-HL. 3. thriving in damp, cool conditions 4. not paying back a student loan before the involvement of a credit agency (iii) there is the ratio of the population claimed to have the property at issue: that is, the percentage . Only in sentences #3 and #4 are things precise. Sentences #1 and #2 are less precise.
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1084001week9notes © 2 What is the best way to understand sentence #1? More than 50% of the population has the property in question. How do we understand sentence #2? More information is required in order to be more precise. Is it most or is it higher than with other forms of cancer? It may be implicitly relative. Standard Form for Simple Statistical Statements: (Percentage) % of (population) has (property) . The above sentences written in standard form: 1. More than 50% of SFU students have student loans. 2. A high percentage of people with Hodgkin’s lymphoma recover. (?) 3. 100% of ferns thrive in cool, damp conditions. 4. 20% of students who receive a student loan do not pay that loan back before a credit agency is involved. We can be justified in asserting such claims, even if we haven’t checked the entire population. We can use survey arguments. -an argument in which a survey of a small group of items is used to derive a statistical claim about a larger population. “survey” is to be understood broadly
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2011 for the course PHIL 1 taught by Professor Jillianmcdonald during the Winter '10 term at Simon Fraser.

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phil001notesweek9.1 - Dr Mcs Philosophy 001 (1084) Lecture...

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