CV system

CV system - 20-1Chapter 20 The Cardiovascular System The...

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Unformatted text preview: 20-1Chapter 20 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart • Heart pumps over 1 million gallons per year • Over 60,000 miles of blood vessels20-2Heart Location • Heart is located in the mediastinum – area from the sternum to the vertebral column and between the lungs Pulmonary trunk Esophagus Superior vena cava Ascending aorta Bronchus of lung 20-3Heart Orientation • Apex - directed anteriorly, inferiorly and to the left • Base - directed posteriorly, superiorly and to the right • Anterior surface - deep to the sternum and ribs • Inferior surface - rests on the diaphragm • Right border - faces right lung • Left border (pulmonary border) - faces left lung 20-4Surface Projection of the Heart • Superior right point at the superior border of the 3rdright costal cartilage • Superior left point at the inferior border of the 2ndleft costal cartilage 3cm to the left of midline • Inferior left point at the 5thintercostal space, 9 cm from the midline • Inferior right point at superior border of the 6thright costal cartilage, 3 cm from the midline20-5Pericardial cavity filled with pericardial fluid Visceral pericardium (or epicardium) Parietal pericardium Serous pericardium Fibrous pericardium Pericardium Pericardium 20-6Pericardium• Fibrous pericardium – dense irregular CT – protects and anchors the heart, prevents overstretching • Serous pericardium – thin delicate membrane – contains • parietal layer-outer layer • pericardial cavity with pericardial fluid • visceral layer (epicardium) 20-7Layers of Heart Wall• Epicardium – visceral layer of serous pericardium • Myocardium – cardiac muscle layer is the bulk of the heart • Endocardium – chamber lining & valvesEpicardium Myocardium Endocardium 20-8Chambers and Sulci of the Heart • Four chambers – 2 upper atria – 2 lower ventricles • Sulci - grooves on surface of heart containing coronary blood vessels and fat – coronary sulcus • encircles heart and marks the boundary between the atria and the ventricles – anterior interventricular sulcus • marks the boundary between the ventricles anteriorly – posterior interventricular sulcus • marks the boundary between the ventricles posteriorly 20-9• Receives blood from 3 sources– superior vena cava, inferior vena cava and coronary sinus • Interatrial septum partitions the atria• Fossa ovalis is a remnant of the fetal foramen ovale• Tricuspid valve– Blood flows through into right ventricle – has three cusps composed of dense CT covered by endocardiumRight Atrium 20-10•Forms most of anterior surface of heart •Papillary muscles are cone shaped trabeculae carneae (raised bundles of cardiac muscle) •Chordae tendineae: cords between valve cusps and papillary muscles •Interventricular septum: partitions ventricles •Pulmonary semilunar valve: blood flows into pulmonary trunk Right Ventricle 20-11• Forms most of the base of the heart • Receives blood from lungs - 4 pulmonary veins (2 right +...
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CV system - 20-1Chapter 20 The Cardiovascular System The...

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