Lecture 2 1-13-11

Lecture 2 1-13-11 - 2-1Chemistry 115Dr. Raftery

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Unformatted text preview: 2-1Chemistry 115Dr. Raftery raftery@purdue.eduhttp://www.itap.purdue.edu/tlt/blackboardLecture 2 OutlineChapter 1Chapter 2What is Chemistry?Atomic Theory TodayScientific MethodSymbolic Representation The Three Types of Matter Isotopes and Atomic Mass Units, Errors, Significant Figures Periodic TableDimensional AnalysisIons, Ionic CompoundsNaming Ionic CompoundsHW1:ReviewSee OWL for assignmentDue Wednesday, January 19, 11pmRecitation (Jan 14):Review Chapters 1,22-2What is chemistry?Chemistry is the study of matterMatter can be classified in a number of waysphysical state - gas, liquid, solid(also plasma)pure substances or mixturesChemical compositionPropertieswe can measure regarding a substance1) Physical - doesn't change chemical identityEx.: color, hardness, density, melting pointa physical change is a change of state: liquid -> gas2) Chemical - how a substance reactsflammabilityhydroscopic- a chemical change changes the chemical identityBurnH2+ O2H2O(not balanced)puremixture2-3Scientific MethodIncreasing CO2concentrationsTrapped CO2raises tempsFurther Experiments:Measure ave temps around globeGlobal WarmingScientific method leads to characteristics of good experiments:Change 1 variable at a time, Reproducible, (Quantitative)Test prediction with other weather phenomena.Global and Continental Temperature ChangeModels using only natural forcings (sources)Models using both natural and anthropogenic forcingsObserved2-5Making MeasurementsChemistry is both a qualitative(what?) & quantitative(how much?) scienceUnits:We use the metric system of units to describe the quantitationPhysical QuantityName of UnitAbbreviationMassKilogramkgLengthMetermTimeSecondsaElectric currentAmpereATemperatureKelvinKLuminous intensityCandelacdAmount of substanceMolemolTABLE 1 SI Base UnitsaThe abbreviation sec is frequently used.2-6PrefixAbbreviationMeaningExampleMega-M1061 megameter (Mm) = 1 X 106MKilo-k1031 kilometer (km) = 1 X 103mDeci-d10-11 decimeter (dm) = 0.1 mCenti-c10-21 centimeter (cm) = 0.01 mMilli-m10-31 millimeter (mm) = 0.001 mMicro-a10-61 micrometer (m) = 1 x 10-6mNano-n10-91 nanometer (nm) = 1 x 10-9mPico-p10-121 picometer (pm) = 1 x 10-12mFemto-f10-151 femtometer (fm) = 1 x 10-15mTABLE 2 Selected Prefixes Used in the SI SystemaThis is the Greek letter mu (pronounced mew).2-7Experimental Errors- All measurements involve errors2-8What are their definitions?2-9Two terms describe errors:1) accuracy how close to the "true" value...
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Lecture 2 1-13-11 - 2-1Chemistry 115Dr. Raftery

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