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Unformatted text preview: David M. Glantz Hitler's Invasion of Russia 1941 Battles & Campaigns
A series of illustrated battlefield accounts covering the classical period
through to the end of the twentieth century, drawing on the latest
research and integrating the experience of combat with intelligence,
logistics and strategy. Series Editor
Hew Strachan, Chichele Professor of the History ofWar
at the University of Oxford Publishing in 2001
David M. Glantz, Barbarossa: Hitler's Invasion ofRussia 1941
Martin Kitchen, The German Offensives of1918
Tim Travers, Gallipoli 1915 Forthcoming
William Buckingham, Arnhem 1944
Stephen Conway, The Battle ofBunker Hill 1775
Michael K. Jones, The Battle ofBosworth 1485
M.K. Lawson, 1066: The Battle ofHastings
Marc Milner, The Battle of the Atlantic 1939-1945
Michael Penman, Bannockburn 1314 Hitler's Invasion of Russia 1941 David M. Glantz TEMPUS 4 First published 2001
PUBLISHED IN THE UNITED KlNGDOM BY: Tempus Publishing Ltd
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Tempus Publishing Group Tempus Publishing Group 21 Avenue de la Republique Gustav-Adolf-StraBe 3 37300 Joue-Ies-Tours 99084 Erfurt FRANCE GERMANY © David M. Glantz, 2001 The right of David M. Glantz to be identified as the Author of this work has been
asserted by him in accordance with the Copyrights, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in
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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data.
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Typesetting and origination by Tempus Publishing.
PRINTED AND BOUND IN GREAT BRITAIN. CONTENTS
List of illustrations 7 Preface 9 1 PLANS AND OPPOSING FORCES 2 THE BORDER BATTLES, 3 THE SOVIET RESPONSE 4 THE BATTLE FOR SMOLENSK, 5 THE BATTLE FOR LENINGRAD, 6 THE BATTLE FOR KIEV, 7 VIAZ'MA, BRIANSK, TIKHVIN AND ROSTOV, 30 SEPTEMBER - 22 11 JUNE - 9 33 JULY 57 10 30 10 JULY - 10 JULY - 10 JULY - 30 SEPTEMBER 30 SEPTEMBER SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 75
137 8 To THE GATES OF Moscow, NOVEMBER 159 9 BARBAROSSA CONTAINED, DECEMBER 183 Conclusions 205 Notes 215 Bibliography 231 Appendices 234 I German planning documents associated with Operation Barbarossa II Soviet planning documents associated with Operation Barbarossa III Summary orders of battle, 22 June 1941
IV Detailed opposing orders of battle, 22 June 1941 Index 251 List of illustrations
References in bold denote maps and are given with page numbers.
1. Hitler, Halder and von Brauchitsch.
2. Hitler meets Rumanian dictator Antonescu, June 1941.
3. The Disposition of German and Soviet Forces on 22
June 1941. (p.17)
4. Adolf Hitler.
5. Colonel-General Franz Halder.
6. Joseph Stalin.
7. Army-General G.K. Zhukov.
8. Marshal-of-the-Soviet-Union B.M. Shaposhnikov.
9. Lieutenant-General A.M. Vasilevsky.
10. Lieutenant-General N.F. Vatutin.
11. German troops passing in review.
12. German Mark III tank.
13. German Mark IV tank.
14. Hitler and von Rundstedt.
15. The Red Army Kiev manouevres, 1935.
16. Red Army manouevres, 1938.
17. Red Army troops on parade, 1939.
18. Marshal Timoshenko addressing troops, September 1940.
19. Red Army T-26 light tank.
20. Red Army BT-7 tank.
21. Red Army T-34 medium tank.
22. Red Army KV-l heavy tank.
23. Red Army airborne troops.
24. Red Army forces in Red Square, 1 May 1941.
25. More troops in Red Square, 1 May 1941.
26. Red Army artillery on parade in Red Square, 1 May 1941.
27. German troops receiving the Barbarossa order.
28.German panzers assembling prior to Barbarossa.
29. German troops fighting on the outskirts of Brest.
30. The Border Battles, 22 June - 9 July 1941. (p.36)
31. German panzers on the attack.
32. German infantry assault.
33. Molotov's proclamation of war, 22June 1941.
34. The Minsk Encirclement, 1 July 1941. (pAl)
35. German artillery moving forward.
36. Field-Marshal Fedor von Bock.
37. Field-Marshal Gunther von Kluge.
38. Colonel-General Herman Hoth.
39. Colonel-General Heinz Guderian.
40. General-of-Panzer-Troops von Vietinghoff
41. Field-Marshal Albert Kesselring.
42. Field-Marshal Ritter von Leeb.
43. Colonel-General Erich von Manstein.
44. Colonel-General Ernst Busch.
45. Field-Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt.
46. Field-Marshal Walter von Reichenau.
47. Colonel-General Ewald von Kleis.
48. Lieutenant-General von Manteuffel,.
49. Lieutenant-General Werner Kempf
50. Red Army prisoners of war.
51. Dead Red Army soldiers.
52. Army-General D.G. Pavlov. 53. Lieutenant-General PM. Filatov.
54. Lieutenant-General K.D. Golubev.
55. Major-General M.G. Khatskilevich.
56. Lieutenant-General A.A. Korobkov.
57. Major-General S.1. Oborin.
58. Lieutenant-General VI. Kuznetsov.
59. Major-General D.K. Mostovenko.
60. Lieutenant-General LV Boldin
61. Colonel-General FI. Kuznetsov.
62. Lieutenant-General PP Sobennikov.
63. Lieutenant-General VI. Morozov.
64. Major-General M.E. Berzarin.
65. Lieutenant-General M.M. Popov.
66. Colonel-General M.P Kirponos.
67. Lieutenant-General M.1. Potapov.
68. Major-General K.K. Rokossovsky.
69. Major-General S.1. Kondrusev.
70. Lieutenant-General N.J. Muzychanko.
71. Lieutenant-General A.A. Vlasov.
72. Major-General 1.1. Karpezo.
73. Lieutenant-General Fla. Kostenko.
74. Lieutenant-General D.1. Riabyshev.
75. Major-General N.V Feklenko.
76. Major-General VI. Chistiakov.
77. Colonel-General LV Tiulenev.
78. Colonel-General la.T. Cherevichenko.
79. Lieutenant-General A.K. Smirnov.
80. Lieutenant-General Iu.V Novosel'sky.
81. Counterattacking Soviet tanks and infantry.
82. Red Army mechanized corps counterattack..
83. German infantry clears a village.
84. German infantry on the attack in a Soviet village.
85. Red Army infantry deploying to the front, June 1941.
86. Pravda's coverage of Stalin's 3 July address to the country.
87. Army Commissar 1st Rank L.Z. Mekhlis .
88. Marshal-of-the-Soviet-Union K.E. Voroshilov.
89. Marshal-of-the-Soviet-Union S.K. Timoshenko.
90. Marshal-of-the-Soviet-Union S.M. Budenny.
91. Red Army soldiers taking the oath, summer 1941.
92. Red Army poster, 1941: 'Under the banner of Lenin Forward to Victory!'
93. Soviet Dispositions on 31 July and Armies
Mobilized by 31 December 1941. (p.70)
94. Red Army poster, 1941: 'The Motherland Calls!'
95. Russian industry being evacuated to the east.
96. Women manning arms industry assembly lines.
97. German artillery supporting an assault on a Soviet city.
98. Colonel-General Heinz Guderian with junior officers.
99. The Smolensk Encirclement, 27 July 1941. (p.81)
100. German tanks destroyed near Smolensk.
101. Lieutenant-General M.F Lukin.
102. Lieutenant-General PA. Kurochkin.
103. Major-General-of-Tank-Forces I.P Alekseenko. 8 List of illustrations 104. Lieutenant-General FN. Remezov.
105. Lieutenant-General I.S. Konev.
106. Major-General VA. Khomenko.
107. Lieutenant-General VIa. Kachalov.
108. Lieutenant-General VF Gerasimenko.
109. Colonel-General A.I. Eremenko.
110. Major-General Ia.G. Kreizer.
111. Major-General M.P Petrov.
112. Major-General A.N. Ermakov.
113. Major-General K.I. Rakutin.
114. Major-General L.M. Dovator.
115. Soviet forces capture EI'nia.
116. German prisoners captured near Smolensk.
117. A Katiusha multiple rocket launcher battery in firing
118. The 'Road of Life' across Lake Ladoga.
119. Red Army troops marching past the Kirov factory.
120. The Battle for Leningrad, 10 July - 30 December
121. German troops and Russian roads.
122. Soviet troops marching along the Neva river.
123. Workers at the Kirov factory erect a barricade.
124. A Leningrad Workers' Battalion heads to the front.
125. Lieutenant-General K.P Piadyshev.
126. Lieutenant-General VA. Frolov.
127. Marshal-of-the-Soviet-Union G.I. Kulik.
128. Major-General VI. Shcherbakov.
129. Major-General 1.1. Fediuninsky.
130. Lieutenant-General N .K. Klykov with his commissar,
131. Major-General M.S. Khozin.
132. A Soviet military warehouse on the western bank of
133. Soviet infantry assault with tank support.
134. German artillery in firing position ncar Kiev.
135. Soviet artillery in firing positions.
136. The Uman' Encirclement: The Sixth Army's View,
3-8 August. (p.122)
137. A Soviet mortar crew engages advancing German forces.
138. Soviet artillery destroying a German tank.
139. Soviet heavy artillery firing.
140. The Kiev Encirclement: Army Group South's
View, 21-23 September 1941. (p.133)
141. Colonel-General M.P Kirponos with Major-General
142. Lieutenant-General K.P Podlas.
143. Major-General I.V Galanin.
144. Lieutenant-General PIa. Malinovsky.
145. Lieutenant-General G.P Sofronov.
146. Admiral G.V Zhukov.
147. Soviet infantry on the attack with grenades.
148. Summary of Operations, 22 June - 30 September
149. German tanks and infantry preparing to advance.
150. Civilians constructing defensive lines west of Moscow.
151. Red Army troops manoeuvre regimental artillery.
152. German panzers attack.
153. The German Advance on Moscow, 30 September 4 December 1941. (p.146)
154. The Viaz'ma Encirclement: Fourth Army's View,
11 October 1941. (p.150)
155. Naval infantry forces arrive to defend Moscow.
156. The Briansk Encirclement: Second Army's View,
14 October 1941. (p.152)
157. Major-General A.M. Gorodniansky.
158. Lieutenant-General I.G. Zakharkin.
159. Major-General D.O. Lcliushenko.
160. Lieutenant-General PA. Artem'ev. Major-General VA. Iushkevich.
Lieutenant-General Ia.T. Cherevichenko.
Major-General FM. Kharitonov.
Major-General LV Panfilov.
Red Army cavalry on the attack, November 1941.
Stalin's address, 6 November 1941.
Soviet troops parade across Red Square on 7 November.
Troops passing in review for Stalin, 7 November 1941.
Machine-gunners in the 7 November parade.
Tanks pass in review in the 7 November parade.
Stalin's orders are read to the troops, November 1941.
Soviet placard, 1941: 'We will defend Mother Moscow.'
General Dovator's cavalry on the march.
General Rokossovsky confers with his chief of staff,
Lieutenant-General Malinin and other staff officers.
175. Major-General I.V Panfilov and his division staff at his
field headquarters, 18 November 1941.
176. Major-General L.M. Dovator and Major-General I.A.
Pliev in November 1941.
177. Major-General M.E. Katukov reports to LieutenantGeneral Rokossovsky and his staff, November 1941.
178. A Soviet antitank gun at Tula, November 1941.
179. Barricades in Tula, November 1941.
180. Major-General PA. Belov.
181. Lieutenant-General-of-Artillery L.A. Govorov.
182. Major-General M.E. Katukov.
183. Major-General A.I. Liziukov.
184. Army-General K.A. Meretskov.
185. Major-General A.I. Lopatin.
186. Stalin on Red Square, 7 November 1941.
187. Tanks and infantry attack German positions ncar
Naro-Fominsk, early December 1941.
188. The 1st Guards Tank Brigade attacking German
positions near the Volokolamsk road.
189. Red Army infantry at the front.
190. Red Army troops deploying into winter positions.
191. Summary of Operations, 1 October - 5 December
192. A captured German artillery position, December 1941.
193. Red Air Force fighters over Moscow, December 1941.
194. On the forward edge of Moscow's defence, December
195. VD. Sokolovsky, N.A. Bulganin and G.K. Zhukov.
196. Soviet placard entitled 'Pincers in pincers'.
197. Siberian troops deploy to the front, December 1941.
198. Zhukov meets with Rokossovsky.
199. Red Army artillery and aircraft.
200. Red Army infantry assault, December 1941.
201. Red Army artillery support the assault.
202. Red Army machine-gunners (with grenades).
203. Soviet troops liberate KJin, December 1941.
204. Destroyed and abandoned German equipment on the
road near Klin.
205. German forces withdrawing ncar Klin, December 1941.
206. Soviet infantry advance on tanks, December 1941.
207. Troops of General Belov's cavalry meet liberated
villagers in the Tula region, December 1941.
208. Major-General A.P Beloborodov,.
209. Lieutenant-General FI. Golikov.
210. Major-General VD. Kriuchenkin.
211. Colonel PG. Chanchilbadze.
212. The Soviet Winter Offensive, December 1941April 1942. (p.204)
213. Summary of Operation Barbarossa, 22 June - 5
December 1941. (p.207)
174. All illustrations are from the author's collection. Preface The sudden, deep and relentless advance of German forces during Operation Barbarossa
has long fascinated military historians and general readers alike. Spearheaded by four
powerful panzer groups and protected by an impenetrable curtain of effective air support,
the seemingly invincible Wehrmacht advanced from the Soviet Union's western borders
to the immediate outskirts of Leningrad, Moscow, and Rostov in the shockingly brief
period of less than six months. Historians have described the German advance as a
veritable juggernaut; a series of successive offensives culminating in November 1941 with
the dramatic but ill-fated attempt to capture Moscow.
As described by Western military historians, the Barbarossa juggernaut began in June
and July when the German Army smashed Soviet border defences and advanced decisively
and rapidly along the northwestern, western, and southwestern strategic axes. By early
July German forces had shattered Soviet forward defences, encircled the bulk of three
Soviet armies (the 3rd, 4th, and 10th) west of Minsk, and thrust across the Western Dvina
and Dnepr rivers, the Soviet's second strategic defence line. Once across the two key
rivers, the panzer spearheads of German Army Groups North and Centre lunged deep
into the Baltic region along the Leningrad axis and toward the key city ofSmolensk on the
Moscow axis. To the south, Army Group South drove inexorably eastward toward Kiev
against heavier Soviet resistance, while German and Rumanian forces soon invaded
Moldavia and threatened the Soviet Black Sea port of Odessa.
During Operation Barbarossa's second stage in late July and early August, German
Army Group North raced through Latvia into Estonia and Soviet territory south of
Leningrad, captured the cities of Riga and Pskov and subsequently pushed northward
toward Luga and Novgorod. Simultaneously, Army Group Centre began a month-long
struggle for possession of the vital communication centre of Smolensk on the direct road
to Moscow. In heavy fighting, the army group partially encircled three Soviet armies (the
16th, 19th, and 20th) in the Smolensk region proper and fended off increasingly strong
and desperate Soviet counterattacks to relieve their forces beleaguered near the city. All the
while, Army Group South drove eastward toward Kiev, destroyed two Soviet armies (the
6th and 12th) in the Uman' region southwest of Kiev, and blockaded Soviet forces in
Odessa. This stage ended in late August, when Hitler decided to halt his direct thrusts on
Leningrad and Moscow temporarily and, instead, attack and eliminate Soviet forces
stubbornly defending Kiev and the central Ukraine.
In Operation Barbarossa's third stage, from late August through September, Army
Groups Centre and South jointly struck Soviet forces defending in the Kiev region, while
other Army Group South forces attacked eastward deeper into the Ukraine. Within a
period of two weeks, German forces encircled four of the Soviet Southwestern Front's 10 Preface armies (the 5th, 21st, 26th and 37th) east and southeast of Kiev. The elimination of the
Kiev bulge and its over 600,000 defenders paved the way for the Germans' final
triumphant drive on Moscow.
The German High Command commenced Operation Typhoon - its final assault on
Moscow - in early October. While Army Groups North and South continued their advance
on Leningrad in the north and toward Khar'kov and across the Dnepr into the Donbas in the
south with reduced forces, the reinforced Army Group Centre mounted a concerted
offensive to capture Moscow. Attacking across a broad front from north ofSmolensk to south
of Briansk, three German panzer groups tore gaping holes through Soviet defences and
quickly encircled five Soviet armies (the 16th 19th, 20th, 24th and 32nd) around Viaz'ma and
three Soviet armies (the 50th, 3rd and 13th) north and south of Briansk. Having destroyed
the bulk of the Soviet Western, Reserve and Briansk Fronts, by the end of October German
forces had captured Rzhev, Kalinin, Viaz'ma, Briansk, Orel, Kaluga and Volokolamsk,
Mozhaisk, and Maloiaroslavets on the distant approaches to Moscow. Further south, General
Heinz Guderian's Second Panzer Army drove eastward through Orel toward Tula, the key to
Moscow's southern defences. All the while, an increasingly frantic Stavka threw hastily
formed reserves into battle to protect its threatened capital.
Mter a brief respite prompted by November rains and mud, Operation Typhoon
culminated in mid-November when the German High Command attempted to envelop
Soviet forces defending Moscow with dramatic armoured thrusts from the north and
south. However, in early December 1941, the cumulative effects of time and fate
combined to deny the German Army a triumphant end to its six months of near constant
victories. Weakened by months of heavy combat in a theatre of war they never really
understood, the vaunted Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe finally succumbed to the multiple foes
of harsh weather, alien terrain and a fiercely resistant enemy. Amassing its reserve armies,
in early December the Stavka halted the German drive within sight of the Moscow
Kremlin's spires and unleashed a counteroffensive of its own that inflicted unprecedented
defeat on Hitler's Wehrmacht.
Western historians have described Operation Barbarossa in panorama, focusing primarily
on the notable and the dramatic while ignoring the seemingly mundane incidents that
formed the backdrop and context for the more famous and infamous actions. Although they
have argued among themselves over the motives, sequencing, timing and objectives
associated with each stage of the operation, they have, nevertheless, tended to emphasize the
offensive's apparently seamless and inexorable nature. This is quite natural, since they lacked
Soviet sources. Precious few of these historians have been able to discern Soviet military
intent or the full scale of Soviet actions during this period. Lacking Soviet sources and
perspectives, these historians have agonized over the paradox that the Wehrmacht's string of
brilliant offensive successes ended in abject defeat in December 1941.
Today, over fifty years after war's end, newly available Soviet sources together with
more detailed analysis of existing German sources permit us to address and answer many
of these and other questions that have frustrated historians for more than half a century.
David M. Glantz
January 2001 1
PLANS AND OPPOSING
FORCES 1. Hitler (centre), Halder (left) and von Brauchitsch. Plan 'Barbarossa'
In the year of our Lord 1189, Frederick I Barbarossa (Red Beard), Emperor of Germany
and self-styled Holy Roman Emperor, took up the cross and led the Third Crusade
against Saladin's Muslim armies that had just captured Jerusalem. Led by ironclad
knights, the armies of Frederick's First Reich swept eastward through Hungary, the
Balkans and Asia Minor, intent on liberating Christianity's holy places from infidel
control. Over 700 years later, Adolf Hitler, Fuhrer of his self-styled German Third
Reich, embarked on a fresh crusade, this time against the Soviet Union, the heartland
of hated Bolshevism. Inspired by historical precedent, he named his crusade Operation
Barbarossa. In place of Frederick's ironclad knights, Hitler spearheaded ...
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