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Unformatted text preview: David M. Glantz Hitler's Invasion of Russia 1941 Battles & Campaigns A series of illustrated battlefield accounts covering the classical period through to the end of the twentieth century, drawing on the latest research and integrating the experience of combat with intelligence, logistics and strategy. Series Editor Hew Strachan, Chichele Professor of the History ofWar at the University of Oxford Publishing in 2001 David M. Glantz, Barbarossa: Hitler's Invasion ofRussia 1941 Martin Kitchen, The German Offensives of1918 Tim Travers, Gallipoli 1915 Forthcoming William Buckingham, Arnhem 1944 Stephen Conway, The Battle ofBunker Hill 1775 Michael K. Jones, The Battle ofBosworth 1485 M.K. Lawson, 1066: The Battle ofHastings Marc Milner, The Battle of the Atlantic 1939-1945 Michael Penman, Bannockburn 1314 Hitler's Invasion of Russia 1941 David M. Glantz TEMPUS 4 First published 2001 PUBLISHED IN THE UNITED KlNGDOM BY: Tempus Publishing Ltd The Mill, Brimscombe Port Stroud, Gloucestershire GL5 2QG PUBLISHED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY: Tempus Publishing Inc. 2 Cumberland Street Charleston, SC 29401 (Tel: 1-888-313-2665) Tempus books are available in France & Germany from the following addresses: Tempus Publishing Group Tempus Publishing Group 21 Avenue de la Republique Gustav-Adolf-StraBe 3 37300 Joue-Ies-Tours 99084 Erfurt FRANCE GERMANY © David M. Glantz, 2001 The right of David M. Glantz to be identified as the Author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyrights, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without the permission in writing from the Publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 0 7524 1979 X Typesetting and origination by Tempus Publishing. PRINTED AND BOUND IN GREAT BRITAIN. CONTENTS List of illustrations 7 Preface 9 1 PLANS AND OPPOSING FORCES 2 THE BORDER BATTLES, 3 THE SOVIET RESPONSE 4 THE BATTLE FOR SMOLENSK, 5 THE BATTLE FOR LENINGRAD, 6 THE BATTLE FOR KIEV, 7 VIAZ'MA, BRIANSK, TIKHVIN AND ROSTOV, 30 SEPTEMBER - 22 11 JUNE - 9 33 JULY 57 10 30 10 JULY - 10 JULY - 10 JULY - 30 SEPTEMBER 30 SEPTEMBER SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 75 97 11 5 137 8 To THE GATES OF Moscow, NOVEMBER 159 9 BARBAROSSA CONTAINED, DECEMBER 183 Conclusions 205 Notes 215 Bibliography 231 Appendices 234 I German planning documents associated with Operation Barbarossa II Soviet planning documents associated with Operation Barbarossa III Summary orders of battle, 22 June 1941 IV Detailed opposing orders of battle, 22 June 1941 Index 251 List of illustrations References in bold denote maps and are given with page numbers. 1. Hitler, Halder and von Brauchitsch. 2. Hitler meets Rumanian dictator Antonescu, June 1941. 3. The Disposition of German and Soviet Forces on 22 June 1941. (p.17) 4. Adolf Hitler. 5. Colonel-General Franz Halder. 6. Joseph Stalin. 7. Army-General G.K. Zhukov. 8. Marshal-of-the-Soviet-Union B.M. Shaposhnikov. 9. Lieutenant-General A.M. Vasilevsky. 10. Lieutenant-General N.F. Vatutin. 11. German troops passing in review. 12. German Mark III tank. 13. German Mark IV tank. 14. Hitler and von Rundstedt. 15. The Red Army Kiev manouevres, 1935. 16. Red Army manouevres, 1938. 17. Red Army troops on parade, 1939. 18. Marshal Timoshenko addressing troops, September 1940. 19. Red Army T-26 light tank. 20. Red Army BT-7 tank. 21. Red Army T-34 medium tank. 22. Red Army KV-l heavy tank. 23. Red Army airborne troops. 24. Red Army forces in Red Square, 1 May 1941. 25. More troops in Red Square, 1 May 1941. 26. Red Army artillery on parade in Red Square, 1 May 1941. 27. German troops receiving the Barbarossa order. 28.German panzers assembling prior to Barbarossa. 29. German troops fighting on the outskirts of Brest. 30. The Border Battles, 22 June - 9 July 1941. (p.36) 31. German panzers on the attack. 32. German infantry assault. 33. Molotov's proclamation of war, 22June 1941. 34. The Minsk Encirclement, 1 July 1941. (pAl) 35. German artillery moving forward. 36. Field-Marshal Fedor von Bock. 37. Field-Marshal Gunther von Kluge. 38. Colonel-General Herman Hoth. 39. Colonel-General Heinz Guderian. 40. General-of-Panzer-Troops von Vietinghoff 41. Field-Marshal Albert Kesselring. 42. Field-Marshal Ritter von Leeb. 43. Colonel-General Erich von Manstein. 44. Colonel-General Ernst Busch. 45. Field-Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt. 46. Field-Marshal Walter von Reichenau. 47. Colonel-General Ewald von Kleis. 48. Lieutenant-General von Manteuffel,. 49. Lieutenant-General Werner Kempf 50. Red Army prisoners of war. 51. Dead Red Army soldiers. 52. Army-General D.G. Pavlov. 53. Lieutenant-General PM. Filatov. 54. Lieutenant-General K.D. Golubev. 55. Major-General M.G. Khatskilevich. 56. Lieutenant-General A.A. Korobkov. 57. Major-General S.1. Oborin. 58. Lieutenant-General VI. Kuznetsov. 59. Major-General D.K. Mostovenko. 60. Lieutenant-General LV Boldin 61. Colonel-General FI. Kuznetsov. 62. Lieutenant-General PP Sobennikov. 63. Lieutenant-General VI. Morozov. 64. Major-General M.E. Berzarin. 65. Lieutenant-General M.M. Popov. 66. Colonel-General M.P Kirponos. 67. Lieutenant-General M.1. Potapov. 68. Major-General K.K. Rokossovsky. 69. Major-General S.1. Kondrusev. 70. Lieutenant-General N.J. Muzychanko. 71. Lieutenant-General A.A. Vlasov. 72. Major-General 1.1. Karpezo. 73. Lieutenant-General Fla. Kostenko. 74. Lieutenant-General D.1. Riabyshev. 75. Major-General N.V Feklenko. 76. Major-General VI. Chistiakov. 77. Colonel-General LV Tiulenev. 78. Colonel-General la.T. Cherevichenko. 79. Lieutenant-General A.K. Smirnov. 80. Lieutenant-General Iu.V Novosel'sky. 81. Counterattacking Soviet tanks and infantry. 82. Red Army mechanized corps counterattack.. 83. German infantry clears a village. 84. German infantry on the attack in a Soviet village. 85. Red Army infantry deploying to the front, June 1941. 86. Pravda's coverage of Stalin's 3 July address to the country. 87. Army Commissar 1st Rank L.Z. Mekhlis . 88. Marshal-of-the-Soviet-Union K.E. Voroshilov. 89. Marshal-of-the-Soviet-Union S.K. Timoshenko. 90. Marshal-of-the-Soviet-Union S.M. Budenny. 91. Red Army soldiers taking the oath, summer 1941. 92. Red Army poster, 1941: 'Under the banner of Lenin Forward to Victory!' 93. Soviet Dispositions on 31 July and Armies Mobilized by 31 December 1941. (p.70) 94. Red Army poster, 1941: 'The Motherland Calls!' 95. Russian industry being evacuated to the east. 96. Women manning arms industry assembly lines. 97. German artillery supporting an assault on a Soviet city. 98. Colonel-General Heinz Guderian with junior officers. 99. The Smolensk Encirclement, 27 July 1941. (p.81) 100. German tanks destroyed near Smolensk. 101. Lieutenant-General M.F Lukin. 102. Lieutenant-General PA. Kurochkin. 103. Major-General-of-Tank-Forces I.P Alekseenko. 8 List of illustrations 104. Lieutenant-General FN. Remezov. 105. Lieutenant-General I.S. Konev. 106. Major-General VA. Khomenko. 107. Lieutenant-General VIa. Kachalov. 108. Lieutenant-General VF Gerasimenko. 109. Colonel-General A.I. Eremenko. 110. Major-General Ia.G. Kreizer. 111. Major-General M.P Petrov. 112. Major-General A.N. Ermakov. 113. Major-General K.I. Rakutin. 114. Major-General L.M. Dovator. 115. Soviet forces capture EI'nia. 116. German prisoners captured near Smolensk. 117. A Katiusha multiple rocket launcher battery in firing position. 118. The 'Road of Life' across Lake Ladoga. 119. Red Army troops marching past the Kirov factory. 120. The Battle for Leningrad, 10 July - 30 December 1941. (p.l02) 121. German troops and Russian roads. 122. Soviet troops marching along the Neva river. 123. Workers at the Kirov factory erect a barricade. 124. A Leningrad Workers' Battalion heads to the front. 125. Lieutenant-General K.P Piadyshev. 126. Lieutenant-General VA. Frolov. 127. Marshal-of-the-Soviet-Union G.I. Kulik. 128. Major-General VI. Shcherbakov. 129. Major-General 1.1. Fediuninsky. 130. Lieutenant-General N .K. Klykov with his commissar, I.V Zuev. 131. Major-General M.S. Khozin. 132. A Soviet military warehouse on the western bank of Lake Ladoga. 133. Soviet infantry assault with tank support. 134. German artillery in firing position ncar Kiev. 135. Soviet artillery in firing positions. 136. The Uman' Encirclement: The Sixth Army's View, 3-8 August. (p.122) 137. A Soviet mortar crew engages advancing German forces. 138. Soviet artillery destroying a German tank. 139. Soviet heavy artillery firing. 140. The Kiev Encirclement: Army Group South's View, 21-23 September 1941. (p.133) 141. Colonel-General M.P Kirponos with Major-General VI. Tupikov. 142. Lieutenant-General K.P Podlas. 143. Major-General I.V Galanin. 144. Lieutenant-General PIa. Malinovsky. 145. Lieutenant-General G.P Sofronov. 146. Admiral G.V Zhukov. 147. Soviet infantry on the attack with grenades. 148. Summary of Operations, 22 June - 30 September 1941. (p.140) 149. German tanks and infantry preparing to advance. 150. Civilians constructing defensive lines west of Moscow. 151. Red Army troops manoeuvre regimental artillery. 152. German panzers attack. 153. The German Advance on Moscow, 30 September 4 December 1941. (p.146) 154. The Viaz'ma Encirclement: Fourth Army's View, 11 October 1941. (p.150) 155. Naval infantry forces arrive to defend Moscow. 156. The Briansk Encirclement: Second Army's View, 14 October 1941. (p.152) 157. Major-General A.M. Gorodniansky. 158. Lieutenant-General I.G. Zakharkin. 159. Major-General D.O. Lcliushenko. 160. Lieutenant-General PA. Artem'ev. Major-General VA. Iushkevich. Lieutenant-General Ia.T. Cherevichenko. Major-General FM. Kharitonov. Major-General LV Panfilov. Red Army cavalry on the attack, November 1941. Stalin's address, 6 November 1941. Soviet troops parade across Red Square on 7 November. Troops passing in review for Stalin, 7 November 1941. Machine-gunners in the 7 November parade. Tanks pass in review in the 7 November parade. Stalin's orders are read to the troops, November 1941. Soviet placard, 1941: 'We will defend Mother Moscow.' General Dovator's cavalry on the march. General Rokossovsky confers with his chief of staff, Lieutenant-General Malinin and other staff officers. 175. Major-General I.V Panfilov and his division staff at his field headquarters, 18 November 1941. 176. Major-General L.M. Dovator and Major-General I.A. Pliev in November 1941. 177. Major-General M.E. Katukov reports to LieutenantGeneral Rokossovsky and his staff, November 1941. 178. A Soviet antitank gun at Tula, November 1941. 179. Barricades in Tula, November 1941. 180. Major-General PA. Belov. 181. Lieutenant-General-of-Artillery L.A. Govorov. 182. Major-General M.E. Katukov. 183. Major-General A.I. Liziukov. 184. Army-General K.A. Meretskov. 185. Major-General A.I. Lopatin. 186. Stalin on Red Square, 7 November 1941. 187. Tanks and infantry attack German positions ncar Naro-Fominsk, early December 1941. 188. The 1st Guards Tank Brigade attacking German positions near the Volokolamsk road. 189. Red Army infantry at the front. 190. Red Army troops deploying into winter positions. 191. Summary of Operations, 1 October - 5 December 1941. (p.181) 192. A captured German artillery position, December 1941. 193. Red Air Force fighters over Moscow, December 1941. 194. On the forward edge of Moscow's defence, December 1941. 195. VD. Sokolovsky, N.A. Bulganin and G.K. Zhukov. 196. Soviet placard entitled 'Pincers in pincers'. 197. Siberian troops deploy to the front, December 1941. 198. Zhukov meets with Rokossovsky. 199. Red Army artillery and aircraft. 200. Red Army infantry assault, December 1941. 201. Red Army artillery support the assault. 202. Red Army machine-gunners (with grenades). 203. Soviet troops liberate KJin, December 1941. 204. Destroyed and abandoned German equipment on the road near Klin. 205. German forces withdrawing ncar Klin, December 1941. 206. Soviet infantry advance on tanks, December 1941. 207. Troops of General Belov's cavalry meet liberated villagers in the Tula region, December 1941. 208. Major-General A.P Beloborodov,. 209. Lieutenant-General FI. Golikov. 210. Major-General VD. Kriuchenkin. 211. Colonel PG. Chanchilbadze. 212. The Soviet Winter Offensive, December 1941April 1942. (p.204) 213. Summary of Operation Barbarossa, 22 June - 5 December 1941. (p.207) 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. All illustrations are from the author's collection. Preface The sudden, deep and relentless advance of German forces during Operation Barbarossa has long fascinated military historians and general readers alike. Spearheaded by four powerful panzer groups and protected by an impenetrable curtain of effective air support, the seemingly invincible Wehrmacht advanced from the Soviet Union's western borders to the immediate outskirts of Leningrad, Moscow, and Rostov in the shockingly brief period of less than six months. Historians have described the German advance as a veritable juggernaut; a series of successive offensives culminating in November 1941 with the dramatic but ill-fated attempt to capture Moscow. As described by Western military historians, the Barbarossa juggernaut began in June and July when the German Army smashed Soviet border defences and advanced decisively and rapidly along the northwestern, western, and southwestern strategic axes. By early July German forces had shattered Soviet forward defences, encircled the bulk of three Soviet armies (the 3rd, 4th, and 10th) west of Minsk, and thrust across the Western Dvina and Dnepr rivers, the Soviet's second strategic defence line. Once across the two key rivers, the panzer spearheads of German Army Groups North and Centre lunged deep into the Baltic region along the Leningrad axis and toward the key city ofSmolensk on the Moscow axis. To the south, Army Group South drove inexorably eastward toward Kiev against heavier Soviet resistance, while German and Rumanian forces soon invaded Moldavia and threatened the Soviet Black Sea port of Odessa. During Operation Barbarossa's second stage in late July and early August, German Army Group North raced through Latvia into Estonia and Soviet territory south of Leningrad, captured the cities of Riga and Pskov and subsequently pushed northward toward Luga and Novgorod. Simultaneously, Army Group Centre began a month-long struggle for possession of the vital communication centre of Smolensk on the direct road to Moscow. In heavy fighting, the army group partially encircled three Soviet armies (the 16th, 19th, and 20th) in the Smolensk region proper and fended off increasingly strong and desperate Soviet counterattacks to relieve their forces beleaguered near the city. All the while, Army Group South drove eastward toward Kiev, destroyed two Soviet armies (the 6th and 12th) in the Uman' region southwest of Kiev, and blockaded Soviet forces in Odessa. This stage ended in late August, when Hitler decided to halt his direct thrusts on Leningrad and Moscow temporarily and, instead, attack and eliminate Soviet forces stubbornly defending Kiev and the central Ukraine. In Operation Barbarossa's third stage, from late August through September, Army Groups Centre and South jointly struck Soviet forces defending in the Kiev region, while other Army Group South forces attacked eastward deeper into the Ukraine. Within a period of two weeks, German forces encircled four of the Soviet Southwestern Front's 10 Preface armies (the 5th, 21st, 26th and 37th) east and southeast of Kiev. The elimination of the Kiev bulge and its over 600,000 defenders paved the way for the Germans' final triumphant drive on Moscow. The German High Command commenced Operation Typhoon - its final assault on Moscow - in early October. While Army Groups North and South continued their advance on Leningrad in the north and toward Khar'kov and across the Dnepr into the Donbas in the south with reduced forces, the reinforced Army Group Centre mounted a concerted offensive to capture Moscow. Attacking across a broad front from north ofSmolensk to south of Briansk, three German panzer groups tore gaping holes through Soviet defences and quickly encircled five Soviet armies (the 16th 19th, 20th, 24th and 32nd) around Viaz'ma and three Soviet armies (the 50th, 3rd and 13th) north and south of Briansk. Having destroyed the bulk of the Soviet Western, Reserve and Briansk Fronts, by the end of October German forces had captured Rzhev, Kalinin, Viaz'ma, Briansk, Orel, Kaluga and Volokolamsk, Mozhaisk, and Maloiaroslavets on the distant approaches to Moscow. Further south, General Heinz Guderian's Second Panzer Army drove eastward through Orel toward Tula, the key to Moscow's southern defences. All the while, an increasingly frantic Stavka threw hastily formed reserves into battle to protect its threatened capital. Mter a brief respite prompted by November rains and mud, Operation Typhoon culminated in mid-November when the German High Command attempted to envelop Soviet forces defending Moscow with dramatic armoured thrusts from the north and south. However, in early December 1941, the cumulative effects of time and fate combined to deny the German Army a triumphant end to its six months of near constant victories. Weakened by months of heavy combat in a theatre of war they never really understood, the vaunted Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe finally succumbed to the multiple foes of harsh weather, alien terrain and a fiercely resistant enemy. Amassing its reserve armies, in early December the Stavka halted the German drive within sight of the Moscow Kremlin's spires and unleashed a counteroffensive of its own that inflicted unprecedented defeat on Hitler's Wehrmacht. Western historians have described Operation Barbarossa in panorama, focusing primarily on the notable and the dramatic while ignoring the seemingly mundane incidents that formed the backdrop and context for the more famous and infamous actions. Although they have argued among themselves over the motives, sequencing, timing and objectives associated with each stage of the operation, they have, nevertheless, tended to emphasize the offensive's apparently seamless and inexorable nature. This is quite natural, since they lacked Soviet sources. Precious few of these historians have been able to discern Soviet military intent or the full scale of Soviet actions during this period. Lacking Soviet sources and perspectives, these historians have agonized over the paradox that the Wehrmacht's string of brilliant offensive successes ended in abject defeat in December 1941. Today, over fifty years after war's end, newly available Soviet sources together with more detailed analysis of existing German sources permit us to address and answer many of these and other questions that have frustrated historians for more than half a century. David M. Glantz Carlisle, Pennsylvania January 2001 1 PLANS AND OPPOSING FORCES 1. Hitler (centre), Halder (left) and von Brauchitsch. Plan 'Barbarossa' In the year of our Lord 1189, Frederick I Barbarossa (Red Beard), Emperor of Germany and self-styled Holy Roman Emperor, took up the cross and led the Third Crusade against Saladin's Muslim armies that had just captured Jerusalem. Led by ironclad knights, the armies of Frederick's First Reich swept eastward through Hungary, the Balkans and Asia Minor, intent on liberating Christianity's holy places from infidel control. Over 700 years later, Adolf Hitler, Fuhrer of his self-styled German Third Reich, embarked on a fresh crusade, this time against the Soviet Union, the heartland of hated Bolshevism. Inspired by historical precedent, he named his crusade Operation Barbarossa. In place of Frederick's ironclad knights, Hitler spearheaded ...
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