Lecture5_Motivation_part1 - Motivation Part 1 September 10,...

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Unformatted text preview: Motivation Part 1 September 10, 2007 Definition Motivation: The set of processes that arouse, direct and maintain human behavior toward a goal. Two Types of "Person" Centered Motivation Theories Content theories: Offer ways to profile or analyze individuals to identify the needs the motivate their behavior. Addresses the question of why some people are generally more motivated than others (Person Approach). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 1. Some needs are more important than others. 2. Lower order needs must be satisfied before other needs can serve as motivators. Critiques of Maslow's Hierarchy People do not stop thinking about basic needs just because they are satisfied. People from different cultures emphasize different needs. Collectivistic cultures emphasize social needs more than other needs. ERG Theory Maslow's 5 needs compressed into 3. Existence: Desire for physiological and material well being. Relatedness: Desire for satisfying personal relationships. Growth: Desire for personal growth and development. A lower level need is activated when a higher level need is not satisfied. More than one need can be activated at the same time. Acquired Needs Theory McClelland used the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) to measure three types of human needs. Three Basic Needs Need for achievement: The desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks. Need for affiliation: The desire to establish friendly and warm relationships with others. Need for power: The desire to control others, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for others. Needs and Behavior at Work I ndividual Needs W ork Preference Exam ple nAchieve Entrepreneur; Salesperson with Individual responsibility, challenging but doable challenging quota and opportunity to earn goals; feedback on performance. individual bonus. Work with others; frequent opportunities to communicate. Influence over others; attention, recognition. Customer service; Group wage bonus plan Opportunity for leadership position; committee head; administrator. nAffiliate nPow er Study: McClelland trained entrepreneurs in India to raise their nAchieve scores. Found that, two years later, people who received training generated twice as many jobs as those who did not receive training. A Different Approach Process theories: What are the thought or cognitive processes that take place within the minds of people which act to influence their behavior? Expectancy Theory Proposed by Victor Vroom in 1964. Central question: What determines the willingness of an individual to exert personal effort to work at tasks that contribute to organizational performance? To answer this question, managers must know 3 things. Expectancy Theory (continued) Expectancy (Can I do it?): Probability assigned by an individual that work effort will be followed by a given level of achieved task performance. Instrumentality (Will I be rewarded?): Probability assigned by an individual that a given level of achieved task performance will lead to a work outcome. Valence (Do I care?): Value attached by the individual to a work outcome. Multiplier Effects Motivation = E x I x V A zero on any of these dimensions means that motivation is zero. Multiplier effect requires managers to maximize expectancy, instrumentality and valence to achieve high levels of motivation. Managerial Implications of Expectancy Theory Expectancy Term Expectancy The I ndividual's Question "Can I achieve the desired level of task performance?" "What work outcomes will be received as a result of the performance?" "How highly do I value the work outcomes?" Mangerial I mplications Select workers with ability; train workers to use ability Formally make rewards contingent on performance. Identify individual needs, adjust rewards accordingly. Instrumentality Valence EXTRA CREDIT Part 1: Complete in class assessment Part 2: Return survey via email. ...
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