MIS300_Midterm_Ch4 - MIS300 Study Guide Chapter Four...

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MIS300 – Study Guide – Chapter Four -Hardware: Consists of electronic components and related gadgetry that input, process, output, and store data according to instructions encoded in computer programs and software -Input Hardware: Keyboard, mouse, document scanners, bar-code scanners, microphones, even human handwriting (in tablet PCs). Older input hardware includes magnetic ink readers and scanners (such as a Scantron test scanner) -Processing Devices: Includes the central processing unit (CPU), which is sometimes called “the brain” of the computer. -A CPU with two CPU’s is called a dual-processor computer -A CPU with four CPU’s is called a quad-processor computer - Main Memory: The CPU reads data and instructions from memory, and it stores results of computations in main memory. Main memory is also sometimes called RAM (Random Access Memory). -Special Function Cards: A card that can be added to the computer to augment its basic capabilities. A common example is a card that provides enhanced clarity and refresh speed for the computer’s video display. - Output Hardware: Consists of video displays, printers, audio speakers, overhead projectors, and other special-purpose devices, such as large flatbed plotters. -Storage Hardware: Saves data and programs. Magnetic disk is by far the most common storage device.
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-Computers represent data using binary digits , called bits . A bit is either a zero or a one . Bits are used for computer data because they are easy to represent physically. Regardless of whether computer data are numbers, alphabetical letters, or photos, they are merely a collection of bits. -Bits are grouped into 8-bit chunks called bytes . -A kilobyte (K) is a collection of 1,024 bytes. -A megabyte (MB) is 1,024 kilobytes. -A gigabyte (GB) is 1,024 megabytes. -A terabyte (TB) is 1,024 gigabytes. -The first step a computer uses to run a program is to transfer code from a storage disk, such as a hard drive, to its main memory . -The second step is to move a program instruction, like Open File, from the main memory into the CPU by using a data channel, also called a data bus . -The cache memory, part of the CPU, stores frequently used instructions to help speed up processing. -The operating system (OS), such as Windows, controls a computer’s resources. Small blocks of instructions from the OS are stored temporarily in the main memory. -Since the main memory is too small to hold all the program code for the operating system
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2011 for the course MIS 300 taught by Professor Sign during the Spring '11 term at S. Alabama.

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MIS300_Midterm_Ch4 - MIS300 Study Guide Chapter Four...

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