Orgo Unit 9.1 Discussion

Orgo Unit 9.1 Discussion - Topic #1: List and explain the...

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Topic #1: List and explain the four most important factors that control the relative reactivity of a carbonyl- containing functional group in an addition or substitution reaction. The four most important factors that control the relative reactivity of a carbonyl-containing functional group in an addition or substitution reaction are the following: 1.) Polarization/Inductive Effects This factor relates to the electronegativity difference between the carbon atom of the carbonyl and the electronegative oxygen to which the carbon is bonded. Carbon atoms typically have an electronegativity measure of 2.5, and oxygen atoms have an electronegativity measure of 3.5. Thus, the electronegativity difference is 1.0, which is relatively large. The result is that the oxygen atom of the carbonyl withdraws electron density from the oxygen molecule, leaving it with a partial positive charge (Delta +). Consequently, the carbon atom of the carbonyl is more electrophilic, and thus prone to nucleophilic attack. Thus, the greater the electronegativity of the atom to which the carbon of the carbonyl is bonded,
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2011 for the course AAS 410.302.81 taught by Professor Thompson during the Spring '11 term at Johns Hopkins.

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Orgo Unit 9.1 Discussion - Topic #1: List and explain the...

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