ANA - Types of Antibodies In order to understand the ANA...

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Types of Antibodies In order to understand the ANA (antinuclear antibody) test, it is first important to understand different types of antibodies. •Antibodies are proteins, produced by white blood cells, which normally circulate in the blood to defend against foreign invaders such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. •Autoantibodies, instead of acting against foreign invaders as normal antibodies do, attack the body's own cells. •Antinucler antibodies are a unique group of autoantibodies that have the ability to attack structures in the nucleus of cells. The nucleus of a cell contains genetic material referred to as DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). ANA (Antinuclear Antibody) Test To perform the ANA (antinuclear antibody) test:- 1. A blood sample is drawn from the patient and sent to the lab for testing. 2. Serum from the patient's blood specimen is added to microscope slides which have commerically prepared cells on the slide surface (eg Hep-2 cells). 3. If the patient's serum contains antinuclear antibodies (ANA), they bind to the cells (specifically the nuclei of the cells) on the slide. 4. A second antibody, commercially tagged is added to the mix of patient's serum and commercially prepared cells on the slide. 5. The second antibody attaches to the serum antibodies and cells which have bound together. 6. When viewed under an microscope, antinuclear antibodies appear as fluorescent cells or a colorimetric reaction. •If fluorescent/colorimetric cells are observed, the ANA (antinuclear antibody) test is considered positive. •If fluorescent/colorimetric cells are not observed, the ANA (antinuclear antibody) test is considered negative. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are autoantibodies against various cell nucleus antigens and are found in patients with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Some of ANA are considered to be useful for diagnosis of autoimmune diseases such as SLE, MCTD, SjS, PSS.
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HEp-2 (immortalized cells orginated from human laryngeal carcinoma) cells have large nuclei, staining patterns can be observed in detail. Moreover, cells in various
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2011 for the course BIOL 4202 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at North Texas.

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ANA - Types of Antibodies In order to understand the ANA...

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