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CHEM 1360 CHS 1-5 - The Study of Chemistry The The Atomic...

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The Study of Chemistry The Study of Chemistry The The Atomic Atomic and and Molecular Molecular Perspective of Perspective of Chemistry Chemistry • Matter is the physical material of the universe. • Matter is made up of relatively few (ca. 100) elements . • Elements are the building blocks of matter. • On the nano (ultramicroscopic) level, matter consists of atoms. An atom is a “nano-basketball” -- nano = 10 -9 . • Atoms usually are found in the combined state, either molecules, salts, or alloys. • Molecules may consist of the same type of atoms or different types of atoms.
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Elements Elements Classification of Matter Classification of Matter The next five elements are: Na 2%, K 2%, Mg 2%, H 1%, Ti 0.5%. The next six elements are: N 3%, Ca 1.5%, P 1%, K,S,Na 0.75%
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Elements in the Human Body – Elements in the Human Body – including trace elements including trace elements
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The Periodic Table The Periodic Table Bring your Periodic Table to each class!
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Properties of Matter Properties of Matter When a substance undergoes a physical change, its physical appearance changes, but its chemical nature does not. Physical and Chemical Changes Physical and Chemical Changes Example: the melting of ice (physical change) results in a solid being converted into a liquid, but it is still water. Physical changes do not result in a change of composition. When a substance changes its composition, it undergoes a chemical change Example: when pure hydrogen and pure oxygen react completely, they form pure water. In the flask containing water, there is no oxygen or hydrogen left over.
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Units of Measurement Units of Measurement Powers of ten are used for convenience with smaller or larger units in the SI system. What is a GigaByte?
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Units of Measurement - Units of Measurement - Temperature Temperature There are three temperature scales: Kelvin Scale (used in science) Same temperature increment as Celsius scale. Lowest temperature possible (absolute zero) is zero Kelvin. Absolute zero: 0 K = -273.15 o C. Celsius Scale (used in science) Also used in science. Water freezes at 0 o C and boils at 100 o C. To convert: K = o C + 273.15. Fahrenheit Scale (used in US engineering and commerce) Water freezes at 32 o F and boils at 212 o F. To convert: ( 29 32 - F 9 5 C ° = ° ( 29 32 C 5 9 F + ° = °
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Units of Measurement - Units of Measurement - Temperature Temperature
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A user-friendly way to view the Celsius Scale: 0° - Cold! (coat) 10° - Cool (sweat shirt) 20° - Pleasant (long sleeves) 25° - Room temperature (short sleeves) 30° - Very warm (T-shirt) 40° - Hot! (swimming pool!) Units of Measurement - Units of Measurement - Temperature Temperature
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Units of Measurement - Units of Measurement - Density Density Used to characterize substances. Defined as: density = mass /volume. Units: g/cm 3 , also known as specific gravity . Originally based on mass -- the density was defined as the mass of 1.00 g of pure water.
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John Dalton: Elements are composed of atoms .
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