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ch20 MSJ jlm - Chapter 20 Nuclear Chemistry Glenn T Seaborg...

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1 Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 20 Chapter 20 Glenn T. Seaborg 1912-1999.* Transuranium elements. Pierre and Marie Curie. 1859-1906,* 1867-1934.** Discovered radium; defined “radioactivity.”
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2 Basics: Radioactivity Basics: Radioactivity Nuclear Equations Nuclear Equations Nucleons : particles in the nucleus: p + : proton n: neutron. Mass number A : the number of p + + n. Atomic number Z : the number of p + . Symbol: A z X ; e.g. 14 6 C is “carbon-14” Isotopes : have the same number of p + and differen t numbers of n (and therefore, different mass) In nuclear equations, the total number of nucleons is conserved : 238 92 U 234 90 Th + 4 2 He
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3 Radioactivity Radioactivity There are three types of radiation which we consider: α - Radiation is the loss of 4 2 He from the nucleus, β - Radiation is the loss of an electron from the nucleus (electrons represented as either 0 -1 e or 0 -1 β) γ - Radiation is the loss of high-energy photon from the nucleus. Example of α emission : He Th U 4 2 234 90 238 92 + e Xe I 0 1 131 54 131 53 - + Example of β emission : Example of γ emission : Tc 99m 43 0 0 Tc 99 43 +
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4 Radioactivity - Radioactivity - Separating the types of radiation Separating the types of radiation (-) (++) Charge 2+ 1- 0 Mass(g) 6.64x10 -24 9.11x10 -28 0 Rel. mass 7,300 1 0 Rel. penetration 1 100 10,000 4 2 He nucleus electron high energy photons α β γ _
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5 Radioactivity Radioactivity Complete the following nuclear reactions : ____ p n S 1 1 1 0 32 16 + + _____ e Be 0 1 7 4 + - ____ n 2 Xe n U 1 0 135 54 1 0 235 92 + + + ____ He H H 3 2 2 1 2 1 + + ____ n H Mo 1 0 2 1 98 42 + +
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6 Patterns of Nuclear Stability Patterns of Nuclear Stability Neutron-to-Proton Ratio Neutron-to-Proton Ratio Neutron/proton ratio increases as atoms become larger Above 83 Bi, all nuclei are unstable and belt of stability ends.
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7 Pb Po Bi Pb Po Bi Pb Po Rn Ra Th U Pa Th U 206 82 α 210 84 β 210 83 β 210 82 α 214 84 β 214 83 β 214 82 α 218 84 α 222 86 α 226 88 α 230 90 α 234 92 β 234 91 β 234 90 α 238 92 → → → → → → → →
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