ch15 MSJ jlm - Chapter 15 The Chemistry of Solutes The and...

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1 The Chemistry of Solutes The Chemistry of Solutes and Solutions and Solutions Chapter 15 Chapter 15 Francois Raoult 1830-1901. Raoult’s Law. William Henry 1774-1836. Henry’s Law.
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2 The Solution Process The Solution Process Solutes and solvent are components of the solution. In the process of making solutions with condensed phases, intermolecular forces become rearranged. Consider NaCl (solute) dissolving in water (solvent): the water H-bonds have to be interrupted, NaCl dissociates into Na + and Cl - , – ion-dipole forces form: Na + δ - OH 2 and Cl - … δ + H 2 O. Na + O δ- H H Cl - H O H δ+
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3 The Solution Process The Solution Process
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4 The Solution Process The Solution Process “Rule”: LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE polar solvents dissolve polar solutes. Non-polar solvents dissolve non-polar solutes. Water is polar (because it’s bent). It will therefore tend to dissolve other polar molecules or ions. For example, most salts, alcohols and sugars dissolve in water. Alcohols and sugars all contain the O-H part of a molecule which makes them polar : O X . . H
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5 The Solution Process The Solution Process Most organic substances (compounds of carbon) are non-polar. That is why they in general do not dissolve in water (which is polar). Generally, carbon chains are non-polar (no dipole moment). Since the electronegativities of hydrogen and carbon are virtually the same, hydrocarbons are non-polar. Gasoline is non-polar, because it is a hydrocarbon. C C C C H H H H H H H H
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Solute-Solvent Interactions Solute-Solvent Interactions Miscible liquids: mix in any proportions. Immiscible liquids: do not mix. Soluble liquids: mix in certain proportions. Intermolecular forces are important: water and ethanol are miscible because the broken hydrogen bonds in both pure liquids are re-established in the mixture. The number of carbon atoms in a chain affect solubility:
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ch15 MSJ jlm - Chapter 15 The Chemistry of Solutes The and...

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