ch16 MSJ jlm - Acids and Bases Chapter 16 Johannes N....

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1 Acids and Bases Acids and Bases Chapter 16 Chapter 16 Johannes N. Bronsted Thomas M. Lowry 1879-1947. 1874-1936. Both independently developed Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases.
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2 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Classical Acids: Taste sour Donate H + (called “H-plus” or “proton”) Turn litmus red Generally formed from H-Z, where Z = nonmetal Classical Bases: Taste bitter and feel soapy. Donate OH - (called “O-H-minus” or “hydroxide”) Turn litmus blue Generally formed from MOH, where M = metal Neutralization: Acid + Base Salt + water H-Z + MOH MZ + HOH H + in water is actually in the form of H 3 O + , “hydronium”
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3 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Proton Transfer Reactions Proton Transfer Reactions Brønsted-Lowry acid/base definition: acid donates H + base accepts H + . Brønsted-Lowry base does not need to contain OH - . • Consider HCl( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) H 3 O + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ): – HCl donates a proton to H 2 O. Therefore, HCl is an acid . – H 2 O accepts a proton from HCl. Therefore, H 2 O is a base . Water can behave as either an acid or a base. Amphoteric substances can behave as acids and bases.
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4 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Whatever is left of the acid after the proton is donated is called its conjugate base. Similarly, whatever remains of the base after it accepts a proton is called a conjugate acid . Consider After H 2 O (base) gains a proton it is converted into H 3 O + (acid). Therefore, H 2 O and H 3 O + are conjugate acid-base pairs. After HCl (acid) loses its proton it is converted into Cl - (base). Therefore HCl and Cl - are conjugate acid-base pairs. Conjugate acid-base pairs differ by only one proton. ) ( Cl ) ( O H ) O( H ) HCl( 3 2 aq aq l aq - + + +
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5 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs In each of following Bronsted-Lowry Acid/Base reactions, Which is acid? base? conjugate acid? conjugate base? CH
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2011 for the course CHEM 1420 taught by Professor Acree during the Spring '08 term at North Texas.

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ch16 MSJ jlm - Acids and Bases Chapter 16 Johannes N....

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