Ch05 MSJ jlm - Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions Amedeo Avogadro...

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1 Chemical Reactions Chemical Reactions Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Amedeo Avogadro 1776-1856. Avogadro’s Law.
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2 Ionic Compounds Dissolved in Water Molecular Compounds Dissolved in Water Properties of Solutes in Aqueous Solution Properties of Solutes in Aqueous Solution M + X - ( aq ) M + ( aq ) + X - ( aq ) In solution, each ion is surrounded by water molecules. Transport of ions through solution causes flow of current. There are two types of aqueous solutions : A. Ionic Compounds Dissolved in Water Ions dissociate in water: These solutions conduct electricity.
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3 Ionic NaCl (Na + and Cl - ) dissolving in water
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4 B. B. Molecular Compounds in Water Molecular Compounds in Water Properties of Solutes in Aqueous Solution Properties of Solutes in Aqueous Solution Molecular compounds in water (e.g., CH 3 OH): no ions are formed. If there are no ions in solution, there is nothing to transport electric charge. These solutions do NOT conduct electricity .
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5 Molecular (non-ionic) CH 3 OH dissolving in water
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6 Strong and Weak Electrolytes Strong and Weak Electrolytes Strong electrolytes : completely (100%) dissociate in solution. For example: Properties of Solutes in Aqueous Solution Properties of Solutes in Aqueous Solution NaCl ( aq ) Na + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) Ions in solution are called electrolytes. HCl ( aq ) H + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq )
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7 Weak electrolytes : produce a small concentration of ions when they dissolve. Only partially dissociated. These ions exist in equilibrium with the un ionized substance. Properties of Solutes in Aqueous Solution Properties of Solutes in Aqueous Solution For example: CaCO 3 ( s ) Ca 2+ ( aq ) + CO 3 2- ( aq ) HC 2 H 3 O 2 ( aq ) H + ( aq ) + C 2 H 3 O 2 - ( aq ) Strong and Weak Electrolytes Strong and Weak Electrolytes
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8 Metathesis reactions involve swapping ions in solution: A X + Z A Z + X A X + B Y AY + BX . Metathesis (Exchange) Reaction Metathesis (Exchange) Reaction Metathesis reactions will lead to a change in solution if one of two things occurs: an insoluble solid is formed (precipitate), an insoluble gas is formed. Let’s first look at insoluble solid formation (precipitates ) (also called “molecular reactions”)
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9 Metathesis Metathesis Reactions: formation of precipitate Reactions: formation of precipitate Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + KI(aq) ---> PbI 2 ( ) + KNO 3 ( ) s aq 2 2 Ionic Equation (IE): Pb 2+ (aq)+2NO 3 - (aq) + 2K + (aq) + 2I - (aq) PbI 2 ( s ) + 2K + (aq) + 2NO 3 - (aq) . Net Ionic Equation (NIE)
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2011 for the course CHEM 1420 taught by Professor Acree during the Spring '08 term at North Texas.

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Ch05 MSJ jlm - Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions Amedeo Avogadro...

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