CH10 MSJ jlm - Chapter 10 Gases and the Atmosphere Robert...

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1 Gases and the Atmosphere Gases and the Atmosphere Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Robert Boyle 1627-1691. Boyle’s Law. Jacques Charles 1746-1823. Charles’ Law. J. Charles 1783. First ascent in hydrogen balloon.
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2 Characteristics of Gases Characteristics of Gases Gases are highly compressible and occupy the full volume of their containers. Gases exert pressure, P = F/A (force/area). Gases always form homogeneous mixtures with other gases. Actual gas atoms and molecules only occupy about 0.1 % of the volume of their containers. Avogadro’s hypothesis states that equal volumes of gases at the same pressure and temperature contain equal number of molecules. (To repeat, not equal masses but equal numbers of molecules or moles ).
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3 The Composition of the Atmosphere The Composition of the Atmosphere Dry Atmosphere at Sea Level (% by Volume) Dry Atmosphere at Sea Level (% by Volume) Nitrogen 78.084 Oxygen 20.948 Argon 0.934 Carbon dioxide 0.033 (increasing yearly) Neon 0.00182 Hydrogen 0.0010 Helium0.0052 Methane 0.0002* Krypton 0.0001 Xenon 0.000008 Carbon monoxide, ozone, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide <0.00001* * = variable depending upon pollution Water content in the atmosphere is variable in actual contexts, ranging to over 5% in hot steamy climates to <<1% in dry arid environments.
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5 760 mm Hg Pressure Pressure Atmospheric pressure is measured with a barometer If a tube is inserted into a container of mercury open to the atmosphere, the mercury will rise 760 mm up the tube (at sea level). (at sea level)
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6 Pressure Pressure Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer . Standard atmospheric pressure is the pressure required to support 760 mm of Hg in a column. Units: 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 1.01325 × 10 5 Pa = 101.325 kPa.
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7 Pressure - manometers P atm > P gas P atm = P gas + h 2 P gas = P atm – h 2 P gas > P atm P gas = P atm + h 3
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The Gas Laws The Gas Laws The Pressures-Volume Relationship: Boyle’s Law The Pressures-Volume Relationship: Boyle’s Law A plot of V versus P is a hyperbola . Similarly, a plot of V versus 1/P must be a straight line passing through the origin. constant
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CH10 MSJ jlm - Chapter 10 Gases and the Atmosphere Robert...

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