GreekandHellenisticSociety_020810 - Greek and Hellenistic...

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Unformatted text preview: Greek and Hellenistic Civilization World History Mr. Bsharah 1. Describe the Minoan civilization of Crete. How did the later Bronze Age Mycenaean 1. Describe civilization differ from the Minoan civilization in political organization, art motifs, and military posture? How valuable are the Homeric epics as sources of early Greek history? history? 2. Define the concept of polis. What role did geography play in its development, and why Define did the Greeks consider it a unique and valuable institution? did 3. Compare the fundamental political, social, and economic institutions of Athens and Compare Sparta about 500 b.c.e. Why did Sparta develop its unique form of government? What were the main stages in the transformation of Athens from an aristocratic state to a democracy between 600 and 500 b.c.e.? democracy 4. Why did the Greeks and Persians go to war in 490 and 480 b.c.e.? What benefit could Why the Persians have derived from conquering Greece? Why were the Greeks able to defeat the Persians, and how did they benefit from the victory? defeat 5. How was the Delian League transformed into the Athenian Empire during the fifth How century b.c.e.? Did the empire offer any advantages to its subjects? Why was there such resistance to Athenian efforts to unify the Greek world in the fifth and fourth centuries b.c.e.? centuries 6. Why did Athens and Sparta come to blows in the Great Peloponnesian War? What was Why each side’s strategy for victory? Why did Sparta win the war? each 7. How was Philip II of Macedon able to conquer Greece? Where does more of the credit How for Philip’s success lie: in Macedon’s strength, or in the weakness of the Greek cityfor states? What does your analysis reveal about the components of successful rule? 9. What were the major consequences of Alexander’s death? Assess the achievements of What Alexander. Was he a conscious promoter of Greek civilization, or just an egomaniac drunk with a lust for conquest? drunk Introduction About 2000 B.C.E. Greek speaking people settled About the lands surrounding the Aegean Sea the Contact with Egypt, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor Greeks forged their own unique ideas, values Polis - city-state - foundation of Greek life Conflict with the Persian empire Extraordinary cultural achievements Eventual fall to Macedonians Expansion in Hellenistic age Minoans - 3rd and 2nd millennia Minoan civilization on island of Crete Major influence on early Greeks Named after Minos, legendary founder Early, Middle, and Late Minoan Cnossus - extraordinary remains Early forms of writing Evidence of early form of Greek Trade with the Mycenaeans Eventually fall to Mycenaeans Mycenaeans ca. 2000-1100 Earliest Greek-speaking society Influenced by Minoans, but very different Mycenaeans were warriors Independent, well-organized monarchies Tholos tombs Wanax - title of Mycenaean king Height of power - 1400-1200 B.C.E. Sacked Troy around 1250 B.C.E. Inspiration for Homer’s Iliad, Odyssey Age of Homer - 10th-9th cens. Greek “Middle Age” - 1100-850 B.C.E. Homer wrote of Mycenaeans But reflected age he lived in - 10th-9th cens. Kings less powerful than Mycenaean rulers Limited, constitutional government Sharp class divisions - society was aristocratic Values - physical prowess, courage, protection Values of one’s friends, property, honor and reputation of Arete - courage, manliness Polis and Hoplite Phalanx City-state Characteristic Greek institution Thought of as a community of relatives Agora - marketplace and civic center Heart of Greek social life Hoplite phalanx Dominant military force in Mediterranean Phalanx and polis heralded the decline of kings Bond between aristocrats and farmers Expansion of the Greek World Tremendous expansion by 6th century B.C.E. Macedonia, southern Italy, Sicily, Spain, Macedonia, southern France, Black Sea, north African coast southern Magna Graecia Relieved pressure and land-hunger Safety valve for poleis to escape civil wars Safety poleis Panhellenic (“all-Greek”) spirit Common religious festivals - Olympia, Delphi Encouraged trade and industry The Tyrants ca. 700-500 B.C.E. Economic expansion brought social pressures Tyrant - monarch who had gained power in Tyrant unorthodox but not necessarily wicked way unorthodox Strong one-man rule - might be popular Expelled aristocratic opponents Public works projects, land division Tyrants disappeared - some outrages Mainly - concept of tyranny was inimical to Mainly ideal of polis polis Life in Archaic Greece Features of Greek life coming into focus Increasing role of merchants, artisans Farmers - simple, hard life Aristocrats - rich enough to employ Hired laborers, sharecroppers, slaves Symposion Athletic contests Running, long jump, discus, javelin, Running, pentathlon, boxing, wrestling, chariot race pentathlon, Gods Zeus - father of the gods Hera - Zeus’ wife Poseidon - god of the seas and earthquakes Hestia - goddess of the hearth Demeter - goddess of agriculture and marriage Aphrodite - goddess of love and beauty Apollo - god of the sun, music, poetry, prophecy Ares - god of war Athena - goddess of wisdom and the arts Religion Religion did not inspire great emotion No hope for immortality Justice lay in paying one’s debts Cult of Apollo at Delphi very important Priests preached moderation “Know thyself” and “Nothing in excess” self-control Hubris - arrogance Leads to divine vengeance Sparta Second Messenian War - 650 B.C.E. Fear of Helots Transformation of society Control exerted over each Spartan from birth Powerful commitment to polis Powerful polis Ambition - glory and respect by glory in war Spartan girls had greater freedom Mixture of monarchy, oligarchy, democracy Leadership of Peloponnesian League Athens - Early Tensions Initially an aristocratic polis No written law code Areopagus - council of nobles Elected magistrates, archons Elected archons Agrarian crisis Economic and social pressures Many debtors pledged family as surety Many defaulted and enslaved Solon elected archon in 594 B.C.E. Solon - ca. 639-559 “Shaking off of burdens” Canceled current debts Forbade future debts secured by person Freed Athenians enslaved for debt Expanded citizenship Included immigrant artisans and merchants Divided citizenry into four classes Third class - serve in council of four hundred Thetes - fourth class - voted in assembly Pisistratus - 605?-527 B.C.E. Seizes power as tyrant in 546 B.C.E. Increased power of central government At expense of nobles Public works projects Supported poets and artists Hippias - r. 527-510 B.C.E. Son of Pisistratus Exiled when Sparta invaded Brief revival of noble power under Isagoras Clisthenes and Democracy Central aim of Clisthenes’ reforms Diminish influence of noble factions Four tribes become ten tribes New council of five hundred Final authority in all things in assembly of all Final adult male Athenian citizens adult Debate in assembly was free and open Any Athenian could submit legislation Or argue merits of legislation Persian Wars Asia Minor fell under Lydian then Persian control Greek city-states on Ionian coast in rebellion Persians under Darius invade in 490 Marathon - 490, Greek victory under Miltiades Xerxes - r. 486-465 B.C.E. Massive invasion in 481 B.C.E. 150,000 men and 600 ships Greek victories at Thermopylae, Salamis Delian League Victory in Persian Wars - leads to 150 years of Victory intense, almost unmatched cultural achievement intense, After victory - two sources of power Sparta - head of Peloponnesian League Athens - head of Delian League Reasons for split Need for protection from Persia Desire for revenge and reparations Leadership of Cimon First Peloponnesian War Collapse of Cimon’s authority Supported positive relations with Sparta Rebellion of Thasos against Delian League Thasians appeal to Sparta for aid War began when Megara switched sides from War Sparta to Athens Sparta Athens suffers defeat in Egypt versus Persia Athenian leader Pericles Agrees to thirty years truce with Sparta Athenian Empire and Democracy Reign of Pericles - best and worst in Athens Athens bullies other city-states Freest government world had ever seen Citizenship was key Every decision approved by citizen assembly Collection of people, not their representatives All public officials subject to scrutiny No standing army or police force No way to coerce people Women of Athens Women excluded from most aspects of public life Always under control of male guardian Married very young Divorce difficult to obtain Main function was to produce male heirs Carefully segregated from men Men could seek sexual gratification outside Men marriage with prostitutes marriage Ironic - strong women in Greek tragedy/comedy Great Peloponnesian War Thirty Years’ Peace lasted ten years Spartan strategy - invade and crush army Athenian strategy - raids on coast Athenian decline after death of Pericles, 429 Peace of Nicias in 421 Alcibiades - ca. 450-404 Athenian disaster at Sicily in 413 Spartan leader Lysander Athens surrenders in 404 B.C.E. Struggle for Greek Leadership Spartan hegemony Handed Ionian Greek city-states to Persia Lysander installs “Thirty Tyrants” in Athens Loss to Thebans at Leuctra in 371 B.C.E. Theban hegemony Generals - Pelopidas and Epaminondas Second Athenian empire Repeat mistakes of Delian League Return to disorganization and warfare Fifth Century B.C.E. Culture Two sources of tension fueled creativity Pride in accomplishments vs. fear of hubris Hopes of individual vs. limits of state Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Architectural achievements under Pericles Pericles - Athens as “school of Hellas” Temples to honor city’s gods Projected Athenian greatness History Herodotus - 484?-425? B.C.E. “The father of history” - studied Persian War Attempted to explain human actions Draw instructions from them Thucydides - ca. 460-ca. 400 B.C.E. History of the Peloponnesian War Used evidence to try and discover meaningful Used patterns of human behavior patterns Understanding of history - guide to future Macedonian Conquest Kingdom of Macedon Philip of Macedon - r. 359-336 B.C.E. Admiration for Greek culture Undermined Athenian control of Aegean Demosthenes - 384-322 B.C.E. Battle of Chaeronea in 338 B.C.E. Role of Philip’s son Alexander End to Greek freedom and autonomy Philip assassinated in 336 B.C.E. Alexander the Great 356-323 Alexander’s personality Invasion of Persia in 334 B.C.E. Battle of Granicus River - 334 B.C.E. Battle of Issus - 333 B.C.E. Battle of Gaugamela - 331 B.C.E. Fall of Persepolis - 330 B.C.E. Alexander enters Indus Valley - 327 B.C.E. Alexander’s place in history Man of vision vs. murderous tyrant Alexander’s Successors Ptolemy I - 367?-283 B.C.E. Ptolomies - Thirty-first dynasty in Egypt Seleucus I - 358?-280 Seleucid dynasty in Mespotamia Antigonus I - 382-301 B.C.E. Antigonid dynasty in Asia Minor and Macedon Tremendous trade and prosperity Greece, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia One single political, economic, cultural unit Early Greek Thinkers In some ways, like their gods, the Greeks were In similar to earlier Mesopotamians similar In other ways - radically different Pre-Socratics - Asia-Minor Raised questions about nature that brought Raised about an intellectual revolution about Speculated about nature of the world Guesses that were completely naturalistic No references to supernatural powers Reason and Scientific Spirit Thales - 624-545 B.C.E. Rational, natural explanations for phenomena Water as primary substance Anximander - ca. 611-546 B.C.E. “Unlimited” - basic element Humans originated in water - evolved Heraclitus - 6th century B.C.E. “All is motion” Logos - guiding principle Reason - cont. Leucippus and Democritus World consists of tiny, solid particles - atoms Anaxagoras - 500-428 B.C.E. Particles - seeds, put together by mind Distinction between matter and mind Sophists - 5th century B.C.E. Received pay for teaching Claimed to teach reason and virtue Reasoned analysis to human beliefs, institutions Hellenistic Culture Significant turning point in Greek literature, Significant philosophy, religion and art philosophy, Dominant role of polis is lost Dominant polis Arrogant Greek humanism gives way to Resignation to fate, helplessness Plato’s Academy Becomes center of skepticism (Pyrrho) Aristotle’s Lyceum Center of literary and historical studies Socrates - 469-399 B.C.E. Committed to search for truth Knowledge about human affairs Contempt for democracy Primacy of his own individualism Pursued philosophy Even against wishes of his fellow citizens Seek “the greatest improvement of the soul” Significance of his trial Chose truth over life Cynics Developed Socrates’ philosophy But also distorted it Diogenes of Sinope - ca. 400-ca. 325 Socrates disparaged wealth Diogenes wore rags and lived in a tub Happiness lay in satisfying natural needs in the Happiness simplest and most direct way simplest Ridiculed all religious observances Wisdom from pursuing a proper style of life Plato - 429-347 B.C.E. Student of Socrates First systematic philosopher Founded the Academy Believed in polis and its values Virtues - order, harmony, justice Episteme - a body of true and unchanging wisdom Philosopher-king Subordination of individual to the community Knowledge of the good Aristotle - 384-322 B.C.E. Student of Plato In turn tutored Alexander the Great Founded the Lyceum Gathering, ordering and analyzing all human Gathering, knowledge knowledge Constitution of the Athenians Wide-ranging interests Logic, physics, astronomy, biology, ethics, Logic, rhetoric, literary criticism, politics rhetoric, Epicureans Epicurus of Athens - 342-271 B.C.E. Goal was happiness, not knowledge Achieved through a life based on reason Gods took no interest in human affairs Goal was to liberate people from the fear of death, Goal the gods, and the supernatural the Hedonistic - identified happiness with pleasure Absence of pain and trouble Stoics Zeno of Citium - 335-263 B.C.E. God and nature are the same Humans must live in harmony with themselves Logos - divine reason Guiding principle in nature Source of misery is passion Apatheia - freedom from passion World is a single large polis All people as children of god Literature and Sculpture Alexandria - center of Hellenistic world Museum - great research institute Library - great body of past Greek literature Half a million books Study of history Eratosthenes - ca. 275-195 B.C.E. Tremendous demand for sculpture Sentimental, emotional, realistic Laocoon Mathematics and Science Euclid - 3rd century B.C.E. Elements - plane and solid geometry Archimedes of Syracuse - ca. 287-212 B.C.E. Theory of lever, invented hydrostatics Aristarchus of Samos - ca. 310-230 B.C.E. Heliocentric theory of universe Ptolemy of Alexandria - 2nd century C.E. Eratosthenes of Cyrent - ca. 275-195 B.C.E. Circumference of earth, treatise on geography ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2011 for the course HIST 1050 taught by Professor Fuhrmann during the Spring '07 term at North Texas.

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