ChinasFirstEmpires_080230

ChinasFirstEmpires_080230 - Chinas First Empire World...

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China’s First Empire World History Mr. Bsharah
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Qin Unification of China(221-206 B.C.E.) Qin from Wei River in northwest China Same as Zhou from a millennium earlier Control over rich agricultural regions Dominated important trade routes Welcomed Legalist administrators Policies of enriching the country Strengthening the military Cavalry in the 4th century B.C.E.
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First Emperor - r. 246-210 B.C.E. Came to throne at age thirteen Legalist autocrat Unified China in 221 B.C.E. Title of “emperor” Further expansion Fought Xiongnu Constructed Great Wall 1400 miles long Maybe a million constricted laborers died
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Li Si Legalist minister to First Emperor Extended Qin system of bureaucracy Divided China into forty prefectures Further subdivided into counties Officials chosen by ability Administration impersonal- based on laws Everyone paid taxes Former aristocrats were resettled in the capital
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Centralization and Uniformity Roads radiating out from capital city Uniform weights and measures Unified writing system Standard ideographs Uniform axle lengths for carts Legalist teachings only Burning of Confucian books Hundreds of scholars buried alive
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Burden of Qin Rule Too much change too fast Burdensome taxes Commoners hated conscription and labor Nobles resented loss of status Merchants exploited Non-legalist Scholars oppressed First Emperor died in 210 B.C.E. Intrigues and rebellions Generals join rebels Dynasty collapsed in 206 B.C.E.
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Dynastic Cycle Pattern Cycle begins- Internal wars Unification of China under strong ruler Unification is sign of “Mandate of Heaven” Ruler consolidates power, restores peace, and economic growth follows Cycle Peak Public works, reforms, military expansion Invincible Final stage Opulence causes heavy taxes, wars Vigor of monarchs wane- corruption enters and central control loosens Collapse and cycle begins again
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Han Dynasty First 60 years like first stage of dynastic cycle Gaozu - r. 206-195 B.C.E. Founder of Former Han dynasty Plebian origins to emperor Capital at Chang’an Avoided Qin-like extreme actions Less severe punishments Lowered taxes Economy rebounded
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Han Wudi- r. 141-87 B.C.E. Second phase of dynastic cycle “Martial emperor” Canal from Yellow River to Chang’an “Ever-level granaries” Government monopolies Copper coins, salt, iron, liquor Similar to Qin approach “Salt and Iron Debates” Taxes levied on merchants Coinage debased
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Expansion Under Han Wudi Expansion into Vietnam and Korea Han Wudi’s approach Allied with border nomads- trade and titles Use of force - massive armies Colonists - 700,000 Extension of Great Wall Result - establishment of Silk Road
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Han Government Some Zhou-like principalities
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ChinasFirstEmpires_080230 - Chinas First Empire World...

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