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Name: Date: School: Facilitator: 12.01 Notes Outline “The Conflict Begins” Complete 12.01 Notes Outline as you review lesson 12.01.Explore #1: Describe your initial reaction to this photograph. Explain the circumstances you think surround the event taking place (who, where, why). I. Vietnam’s Background Vietnam has a history of nationalism, a devotion to national interests, unity, and independence, yet has spent a majority of its time fighting occupations by other nations. The Vietnamese have resisted attempts by the French and Chinese to control their small country throughout their history. The French controlled most of Indochina, including Vietnam from the late 1800s until World War II. The Cold War that started in the aftermath of World War II spread to Vietnam during the 1950s. France Battles to Maintain Control In 1945, francebegan fighting an independence movement by the vietminh, a group organized to win Vietnamese independence during WWII, led by Ho Chi Minh. Even with major financial assistance from the U.S., France was unable to retake Vietnam. The French were forced to surrender in May 1954 after a dreadful defeat at the Battle of dien bien phu. Shortly after, they began withdrawal from Vietnam. Creation of North and South Vietnam In 1954, several countries met in Switzerland at the geneva conference to complete a peace agreement. Under the terms, Vietnam was divided into a temporary partition at the 17th parallel , with the Communists controlling North Vietnam and the anticommunists controlling South Vietnam.