Lecture11RespiratoryPhysiology_092608

Lecture11RespiratoryPhysiology_092608 - Respiratory...

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Respiratory Physiology December 9, 2010
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The Atmosphere The weight of the atmosphere exerts a pressure over the surface of the Earth At sea level, this pressure it equivalent to: 1 atmosphere 760 mm Hg 760 torr The 3 main components of the atmosphere are: Nitrogen (N 2 ), Oxygen (O 2 ), a Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 )
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Behavior of Gases The behavior of gases is dictated by: The pressure they are under The volume they occupy P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2
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Boyle’s Law For a fixed amount of gas kept at a fixed temperature, pressure (P) and volume (V) are inversely proportional (while one increases, the other decreases) PV = k where: P is the pressure V is the volume of the gas k is a constant
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Dalton’s Law The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures exerted by each gas independently The partial pressure of gas is the pressure contributed by a single gas This is proportional to the percentage of that gas in the mixture
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Henry’s Law The concentration of a gas dissolved in a fluid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas Affected by: Solubility Temperature
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Gas Movement Gases will move according to pressure gradients They will always flow from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure Atmosphere → respiratory organs → across respiratory membrane → capillary blood
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Respiratory System Anatomy The respiratory system : Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs
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Respiratory System Anatomy Upper respiratory tract : Nose Nasal cavity Ethmoidal air cells Frontal sinuses Maxillary sinus Larynx Trachea
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Respiratory System Anatomy Lower respiratory tract : Lungs Bronchi Alveoli
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Respiratory System Anatomy
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Cellular respiration The processes that allows organisms to release energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) The energy in glucose is used to produce ATP Glucose is oxidized and releases energy Oxygen is reduced to form water The carbon atoms of the sugar molecule are released as carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
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(Physiological) Respiration “Breathing” The diaphragm forces air in and out of the lungs Defined as “the exchange of gases between the cells of an organism and the external environment”
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Ventilation Movement of air into and out of alveoli Inhalation : The lungs inflate with air, bringing oxygen into the body Exhalation : The lungs let go of air, releasing carbon dioxide out into the environment
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Flow, Pressure, and Resistance Air moves by bulk flow, based on pressure differences Oxygen diffuses across membrane Flow = Difference in P (∆P)/R P atm - P alv Flow = ------------------ R R = resistance of bronchioles P atm is constant, how does P alv change
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Airway Resistance The opposition to flow caused by the forces of friction
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2011 for the course BIOL 1020 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at North Texas.

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Lecture11RespiratoryPhysiology_092608 - Respiratory...

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