Lecture10CardiovascularPhysiology_062823

Lecture10CardiovascularPhysiology_062823 - Intro to...

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Intro to Cardiovascular Physiology
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Circulatory System Three basic components: Heart : The pump Blood vessels : The passageways Blood : The transport medium
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Pulmonary vs. Systemic Circulation Pulmonary circulation : Consists of a closed loop of vessels carrying blood between the heart and lungs Systemic circulation : A circuit of vessels carrying blood between the heart and the other body systems
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Basics of Heart Anatomy Hollow muscular organ (about size of clenched fist) Lies in thoracic cavity (chest) Has broad base on top and tapers to pointed apex at the bottom Base lies predominantly to the right and apex to the left Located between sternum and vertebrae
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Basics of Heart Anatomy Atria : Upper chambers Receive blood returning to the heart and transfer it to the lower chambers (ventricles) Ventricles : Lower chambers Pump blood from the heart, to either the lungs or the body Veins : Vessels that return blood from the tissues to the atria Arteries : Vessels that carry blood away from the ventricles to tissues Septum : Muscular partition that separates the two halves of the heart
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The Circuit of Blood Flow Right half of heart receives and pumps deoxygenated blood Left half receives and pumps oxygenated blood Blood returning from the systemic circulation (deoxygenated) enters the right atria via two large veins: superior and inferior venae cavae
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The Circuit of Blood Flow The deoxygenated blood from the right atrium then gets pumped into the right ventricle From there, it’s pumped out through the pulmonary artery It immediately forms two branches, one going to each lung In the lungs, blood picks up O 2 and drops off CO 2 Then it’s returned to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins **Only case where veins carry oxygenated blood and arteries carry deoxygenated blood** Aorta is the single large artery carrying blood away from the left ventricle to the body organs
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The Circuit of Blood Flow Right side of heart receives blood from the systemic circulation and pumps it into the pulmonary circulation Left side of heart receives blood from the pulmonary circulation and pumps it into the systemic circulation
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Comparison of Right and Left Pumps Both sides of the heart simultaneously pump equal amounts of blood Pulmonary circulation is low-pressure , low-resistance Systemic circulation is high-pressure , high-resistance Pressure is the force exerted on the vessel walls by the blood pumped by the heart Resistance is the opposition to blood flow Caused largely by friction between the flowing blood and the vessel wall The left side of the heart pumps an equal volume as the right side, but at a higher pressure, into a higher- resistance and longer system Thus, the heart muscle of the left side of the heart is much thicker/stronger
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Heart valves are pressure-operated Blood flows through the heart in one direction: from the veins to atria to arteries
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