PP1.ppt intro - Intro Chapter 1 Introduction and Research...

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Intro Chapter 1: Introduction and Research Methods
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What is Psychology? The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
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Philosophical Developments A Question: How are mind and body related? RenéDescartes (1596–1650)— Interactive dualism The mind and body interact to produce conscious experience
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Philosophical Developments Another Question: Nature vs. Nurture Are abilities determined by our genes or our experiences? What are the interactions between genetics and environment? What effect does it have on behavior?
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Foundations of Modern Psychology Separated from philosophy in 19th century influences from physiology remain Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) Leipzig, Germany established first psychology research laboratory applied laboratory techniques to study of the mind Edward Titchener (1867–1927) Wundt’s student, professor at Cornell University developed approach called structuralism—involving introspection and studying basic components of conscious experiences. focused on basic sensory and perceptual processes measured reaction times
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Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) E. B. Titchener (1867–1927)
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Other Pioneers William James (1842–1910) started psychology at Harvard in 1870s opposed Wundt and Titchener’s approach his ideas shaped school of functionalism – also influenced by Darwin to focus on how behaviors help us adapt to the environment Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) Austrian physician that focused on illness psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders
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William James (1842–1910) Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
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Schools of Psychology Psychoanalysis—personality theory and form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the role of unconscious factors in personality and behavior Behaviorism—emphasizes the study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning Humanistic—emphasizes each person’s unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction
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Key Influences in the Development of Behaviorism Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Behaviorism grew out of his work with dogs associating a neutral stimulus with an automatic behavior John B. Watson (1878–1958) psychologists should study overt behavior B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) American psychologist at Harvard studied learning and effect of reinforcement behaviorism
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Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
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John B. Watson (1878–1958)
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B. F. Skinner (1904–1990)
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Perspectives Perspective is a way of viewing phenomena Psychology has multiple perspectives Biological Psychodynamic Behavioral Humanistic Positive Psychology Cognitive Cross-Cultural Evolutionary
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Biological Perspective Study the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behavior Focus may be at various levels individual neurons areas of the brain specific functions like eating, emotion, or learning Interest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciences
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Psychodynamic Perspective
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