PP2.ppt intro

PP2.ppt intro - Chapter 2: Neuroscience and Behavior...

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Chapter 2: Neuroscience and Behavior
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Neurons and Synapses Types of Neurons Sensory Motor Interneurons
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Spinal Cord Brain Sensory Neuron Sensory Neurons INPUT From sensory organs to the brain and spinal cord Drawing shows a somatic neuron
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Spinal Cord Brain Sensory Neuron Motor Neuron Motor Neurons OUTPUT From the brain and spinal cord, to the muscles and glands
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Spinal Cord Brain Sensory Neuron Motor Neuron Interneurons Interneurons carry information between other neurons only found in the brain and spinal cord
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Parts of a Neuron
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The Cell Body round, centrally located structure contains DNA controls protein manufacturing directs metabolism no role in neural signaling Contains the cell’s nucleus
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Dendrites Information collectors Receive inputs from neighboring neurons Inputs may number in thousands If enough inputs, the cell’s AXON may generate an output
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Dendritic Growth Mature neurons generally can’t divide But new dendrites can grow Provides room for more connections to other neurons New connections are basis for learning
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Axon The cell’s output structure One axon per cell, 2 distinct parts tubelike structure branches at end that connect to dendrites of other cells
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Myelin Sheath White fatty casing on axon Acts as an electrical insulator Not present on all cells When present, increases the speed of neural signals down the axon
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How Neurons Communicate Neurons communicate by means of an electrical signal called the action potential Action potentials are based on the movements of ions between the outside and inside of the cell When an action potential occurs, a molecular message is sent to neighboring neurons
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Action Potential Within a Neuron
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Resting Potential At rest, the inside of the cell is at -70 microvolts With inputs to dendrites, the inside becomes more positive If resting potential rises above threshold, an action potential starts to travel from cell body down the axon Figure shows resting axon being approached by an action potential
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Depolarization Ahead of AP Action potential opens cell membrane to allow sodium (Na + ) in Inside of cell rapidly becomes more positive than outside This depolarization travels down the axon as leading edge of the action potential
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2011 for the course PSYC 1630 taught by Professor Watkins during the Spring '08 term at North Texas.

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PP2.ppt intro - Chapter 2: Neuroscience and Behavior...

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