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PP9.ppt intro - Intro Chapter 9 Lifespan Development...

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Intro Chapter 9: Lifespan Development
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Developmental Psychology What shapes the way we change over time? Focus on psychological changes across the entire life span Every area of psychology can be looked at from this perspective biological development social development cognitive/perceptual development personality development
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Fundamental Issues: Is Development Continuous? Development means change; change can be abrupt or gradual Two views of human development stage theories: there are distinct phases to intellectual and personality development continuity: development is continuous
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Fundamental Issues in Developmental Psychology Critical period —Are there periods when an individual is particularly sensitive to certain environmental experiences? Are the first hours after birth critical for parent-child bonding? Is first year critical for developing trust? Easier to learn a language before age 10?
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Fundamental Issues: Nature vs. Nurture What is role of heredity vs. environment in determining psychological makeup? These are some of our greatest societal debates
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Overview of Genetics Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes Chromosomes are long twisted strands of DNA DNA is the chemical basis of heredity and carries instructions Genes are the basic unit of heredity; single unit of DNA on the chromosome
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Dominant and Recessive Genes Genotype—underlying genetic makeup Phenotype—traits that are expressed Dominant genes—will always be expressed if present Recessive genes—will not be expressed unless they are in a pair
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Characteristic Dominant Recessive Hair Dark Curly Light Straight Eyes Brown Grey Blue Hands 5 fingers Normal limbs Extra fingers Limb dwarfing Face Broad lips Dimples Thin lips No dimples
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Sex Linked Traits Traits linked to the X or Y (sex) chromosomes Usually recessive and carried on the X chromosome Appear more frequently in one sex than another Color blindness, baldness, hemophilia, Fragile X
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Physical and Psychological Development Related Physical development begins at conception Physical maturity sets limits on psychological ability visual system not fully functional at birth language system not functional until much later Prenatal environment can have lifetime influence on health and intellectual ability
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Prenatal Development Conception—when a sperm penetrates the ovum Zygote—a fertilized egg Germinal period—first two weeks after conception Embryonic period—weeks three through eight after conception Fetal period—two months after conception until birth
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Prenatal Influences on Development Nutrition Anxiety Mother’s general health Maternal age Teratogens—any agent that causes a birth defect (e.g., drugs, radiation, viruses)
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Infant Abilities Infants are born with immature visual system can detect movement and large objects Other senses function well on day 1
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