PP14 - Intro Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders...

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Intro Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders
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Psychopathology—scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psychological disorders Psychological disorder or mental disorder--A pattern of behavioral and psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress, impairs the ability to function in one or more important areas of daily life, or both
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Diagnosis Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)—describes specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for psychological disorders Provides a common language to label mental disorders Comprehensive guidelines to help diagnose mental disorders
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Some DSM-IV-TR Categories Category Features Examples Infancy,Childhood, or  adolescent Symptoms usually  diagnosed in  childhood Autistic Disorder  Tourette’s Disorder Substance-related Effects of seeking or  using drugs Substance abuse Eating disorders Disturbances in  body image, eating Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa Impulse-control  disorders Inability to resist  actions that may be  harmful Kleptomania,  pyromania
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Prevalence of Psychological Disorders Approximately 50% of adults experienced symptoms at least once in their lives (Kessler research) Approximately 80% who experienced symptoms in the last year did NOT seek treatment Most people seem to deal with symptoms without complete debilitation Women have a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety Men have a higher prevalence of substance abuse and antisocial personality disorder
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Anxiety Disorders Primary disturbance is distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety Anxiety—diffuse, vague feelings of fear and apprehension
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Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) More or less constant worry about many issues The worry seriously interferes with functioning Physical symptoms headaches stomach aches muscle tension irritability
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Model of Development of GAD GAD has some genetic component Related genetically to major depression Childhood trauma also related to GAD Genetic predisposition or childhood trauma GAD following life change or major event Hypervigilance
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Panic Disorder Panic attacks—sudden episode of helpless terror with high physiological arousal Very frightening—sufferers live in fear of having them Agoraphobia often develops as a result
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Cognitive-behavioral Theory of Panic Disorder Sufferers tend to misinterpret the physical signs of arousal as catastrophic and dangerous This interpretation leads to further physical arousal, tending toward a vicious cycle After the attack the person is very apprehensive of another attack
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Phobias Intense, irrational fears that may focus on: Natural environment—heights, water, lightening Situation—flying, tunnels, crowds, social gathering Injury—needles, blood, dentist, doctor Animals or insects—insects, snakes, bats, dogs
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PP14 - Intro Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders...

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