naming-hydrocarbons

naming-hydrocarbons - Handout: Hydrocarbons: IUPAC names...

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Unformatted text preview: Handout: Hydrocarbons: IUPAC names Naming Hydrocarbons (nomenclature) Drawing structures: its all good C H 3 C H C H CH 3 C H 3 CH 3 C H 3 CH CH CH 3 2-butene This is called the condensed structure C C C C H H H H H H H H C H 3 CH CH CH 3 On a test, choose a method that shows all Hs CH 3 CH=CHCH 3 Using brackets can also shorten some formulas: 3 2 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 Background: formulas for HCs Alkanes= C n H 2n+2 , enes= C n H 2n , ynes= C n H 2n-2 Remember enes, then think of what would happen if bond was single or triple instead. Provides some useful information (e.g. for 14 44 8 (2x5 - 2 = 10 - 2) C H 3 CH 3 Naming: common vs. IUPAC Common names used in the 1800s are still used for some compounds today: H C C H Acetylene O C CH 3 C H 3 Acetone Formic acid C O OH H The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) was established in 1900s Frequent revisions to nomenclature Systematic method allows an infinite number of compounds to be named given a few rules Basic names of hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon names are based on: 1) class 2) # of C, 3) side chain type and 4) position 1) name will end in -ane, -ene, or -yne 2) the number of carbons is given by a Prefix 1 meth- 2 eth- 3 prop- 4 but- 5 pent- 6 hex- 7 hept- 8 oct- 9 non- 10 dec- Actually, all end in a, but a is dropped when next to a vowel. E.g. a 6 C alkene is hexene Q - What names would be given to these: 7C, 9C alkane 2C, 4C alkyne 1C, 3C alkene heptane, nonane ethyne, butyne does not exist, propene Mnemonic for first four prefixes First four prefixes M eth- E th- P rop- B ut- M onkeys E at P eeled B ananas ?...
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naming-hydrocarbons - Handout: Hydrocarbons: IUPAC names...

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