chapter02 - Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension Dynamics The...

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Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension
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Dynamics The branch of physics involving the motion of an object and the relationship between that motion and other physics concepts Kinematics is a part of dynamics In kinematics, you are interested in the description of motion Not concerned with the cause of the motion
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Quantities in Motion Any motion involves three concepts Displacement Velocity Acceleration These concepts can be used to study objects in motion
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Brief History of Motion Sumaria and Egypt Mainly motion of heavenly bodies Greeks Also to understand the motion of heavenly bodies Systematic and detailed studies Geocentric model
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“Modern” Ideas of Motion Copernicus Developed the heliocentric system Galileo Made astronomical observations with a telescope Experimental evidence for description of motion Quantitative study of motion
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Position Defined in terms of a frame of reference A choice of coordinate axes Defines a starting point for measuring the motion Or any other quantity One dimensional, so generally the x- or y-axis
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Displacement Defined as the change in position f stands for final and i stands for initial Units are meters (m) in SI fi x x x
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Displacement Examples From A to B x i = 30 m x f = 52 m x = 22 m The displacement is positive, indicating the motion was in the positive x direction From C to F x i = 38 m x f = -53 m x = -91 m The displacement is negative, indicating the motion was in the negative x direction
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Displacement, Graphical
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Vector and Scalar Quantities Vector quantities need both magnitude (size) and direction to completely describe them Generally denoted by boldfaced type and an arrow over the letter + or sign is sufficient for this chapter Scalar quantities are completely described by magnitude only
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Displacement Isn’t Distance The displacement of an object is not the same as the distance it travels Example: Throw a ball straight up and then catch it at the same point you released it The distance is twice the height The displacement is zero
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Speed The average speed of an object is defined as the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed Speed is a scalar quantity total distance Average speed total time d v t
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Speed, cont Average speed totally ignores any variations in the object’s actual
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chapter02 - Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension Dynamics The...

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