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chapter04

# chapter04 - Chapter 4 The Laws of Motion Classical...

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Chapter 4 The Laws of Motion

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Classical Mechanics Describes the relationship between the motion of objects in our everyday world and the forces acting on them Conditions when Classical Mechanics does not apply Very tiny objects (< atomic sizes) Objects moving near the speed of light
Forces Commonly imagined as a force as a push or pull on some object Vector quantity May be a contact force or a field force Contact forces result from physical contact between two objects Field forces act between disconnected objects

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Contact and Field Forces
Fundamental Forces Types Strong nuclear force Electromagnetic force Weak nuclear force Gravity Characteristics All field forces Listed in order of decreasing strength Only gravity and electromagnetic in mechanics

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Sir Isaac Newton 1642 1727 Formulated basic concepts and laws of mechanics Universal Gravitation Calculus Light and optics
Newton’s First Law An object moves with a velocity that is constant in magnitude and direction, unless acted on by a nonzero net force The net force is defined as the vector sum of all the external forces exerted on the object

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External and Internal Forces External force Any force that results from the interaction between the object and its environment Internal forces Forces that originate within the object itself They cannot change the object’s velocity
Inertia Is the tendency of an object to continue in its original motion In the absence of a force Thought experiment Hit a golf ball Hit a bowling ball with the same force The golf ball will travel farther Both resist changes in their motion

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Mass A measure of the resistance of an object to changes in its motion due to a force The larger the mass, the less it accelerates under the action of a given force SI units are kg Scalar quantity
Newton’s Second Law The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass.

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