chapter09 - Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids States of Matter...

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Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids
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States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma
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Solids Have definite volume Have definite shape Molecules are held in specific locations By electrical forces Vibrate about equilibrium positions Can be modeled as springs connecting molecules
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More About Solids External forces can be applied to the solid and compress the material In the model, the springs would be compressed When the force is removed, the solid returns to its original shape and size This property is called elasticity
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Crystalline Solid Atoms have an ordered structure This example is salt Gray spheres represent Na + ions Green spheres represent Cl - ions
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Amorphous Solid Atoms are arranged almost randomly Examples include glass
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Liquid Has a definite volume No definite shape Exists at a higher temperature than solids The molecules “wander” through the liquid in a random fashion The intermolecular forces are not strong enough to keep the molecules in a fixed position
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Gas Has no definite volume Has no definite shape Molecules are in constant random motion The molecules exert only weak forces on each other Average distance between molecules is large compared to the size of the molecules
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Plasma Gas heated to a very high temperature Many of the electrons are freed from the nucleus Result is a collection of free, electrically charged ions Plasmas exist inside stars
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Types of Matter Normal matter About 5% of total matter Dark matter Affects the motion of stars in galaxies May be as much at 25% of total matter Dark energy Accounts for acceleration of the expansion of the universe May be as much as 70% of all matter
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Deformation of Solids All objects are deformable It is possible to change the shape or size (or both) of an object through the application of external forces When the forces are removed, the object tends to its original shape An object undergoing this type of deformation exhibits elastic behavior
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Elastic Properties Stress is the force per unit area causing the deformation Strain is a measure of the amount of deformation The elastic modulus is the constant of proportionality between stress and strain For sufficiently small stresses, the stress is directly proportional to the strain The constant of proportionality depends on the material being deformed and the nature of the deformation
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Elastic Modulus The elastic modulus can be thought of as the stiffness of the material A material with a large elastic modulus is very stiff and difficult to deform Analogous to the spring constant stress=Elastic modulus×strain
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Young’s Modulus: Elasticity in Length Tensile stress is the ratio of the external force to the cross- sectional area Tensile is because the bar is under tension The elastic modulus is called Young’s modulus
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Young’s Modulus, cont.
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2011 for the course PHYS 1410 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at North Texas.

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chapter09 - Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids States of Matter...

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