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# chapter10 - Chapter 10 Thermal Physics Thermal Physics...

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Chapter 10 Thermal Physics

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Thermal Physics Thermal physics is the study of Temperature Heat How these affect matter
Thermal Physics, cont Descriptions require definitions of temperature, heat and internal energy Heat leads to changes in internal energy and therefore to changes in temperature Gases are critical in harnessing internal energy to do work

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Heat The process by which energy is exchanged between objects because of temperature differences is called heat Objects are in thermal contact if energy can be exchanged between them Thermal equilibrium exists when two objects in thermal contact with each other cease to exchange energy
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics If objects A and B are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third object, C, then A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other Object C could be the thermometer Allows a definition of temperature

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Temperature from the Zeroth Law Temperature is the property that determines whether or not an object is in thermal equilibrium with other objects Two objects in thermal equilibrium with each other are at the same temperature
Thermometers Used to measure the temperature of an object or a system Make use of physical properties that change with temperature Many physical properties can be used Volume of a liquid Length of a solid Pressure of a gas held at constant volume Volume of a gas held at constant pressure Electric resistance of a conductor Color of a very hot object

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Thermometers, cont A mercury thermometer is an example of a common thermometer The level of the mercury rises due to thermal expansion Temperature can be defined by the height of the mercury column
Temperature Scales Thermometers can be calibrated by placing them in thermal contact with an environment that remains at constant temperature Environment could be mixture of ice and water in thermal equilibrium Also commonly used is water and steam in thermal equilibrium

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Celsius Scale Temperature of an ice-water mixture is defined as 0º C This is the freezing point of water Temperature of a water-steam mixture is defined as 100º C This is the boiling point of water Distance between these points is divided into 100 segments or degrees
Gas Thermometer Temperature readings are nearly independent of the gas Pressure varies with temperature when maintaining a constant volume

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## This note was uploaded on 04/12/2011 for the course PHYS 1410 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at North Texas.

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chapter10 - Chapter 10 Thermal Physics Thermal Physics...

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