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chapter16

# chapter16 - Chapter 16 Electric Energy and Capacitance...

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Chapter 16 Electric Energy and Capacitance

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Electric Potential Energy The electrostatic force is a conservative force It is possible to define an electrical potential energy function with this force Work done by a conservative force is equal to the negative of the change in potential energy
Work and Potential Energy There is a uniform field between the two plates As the charge moves from A to B, work is done on it W = Fd=q E x (x f x i ) ΔPE = - W = - q E x x Only for a uniform field

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Potential Difference The potential difference between points A and B is defined as the change in the potential energy (final value minus initial value) of a charge q moved from A to B divided by the size of the charge ΔV = V B V A = ΔPE / q Potential difference is not the same as potential energy
Potential Difference, cont. Another way to relate the energy and the potential difference: ΔPE = q ΔV Both electric potential energy and potential difference are scalar quantities Units of potential difference V = J/C A special case occurs when there is a uniform electric field V = V B V A = -E x x Gives more information about units: N/C = V/m

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Potential Energy Compared to Potential Electric potential is characteristic of the field only Independent of any test charge that may be placed in the field Electric potential energy is characteristic of the charge-field system Due to an interaction between the field and the charge placed in the field
Energy and Charge Movements A positive charge gains electrical potential energy when it is moved in a direction opposite the electric field If a charge is released in the electric field, it experiences a force and accelerates, gaining kinetic energy As it gains kinetic energy, it loses an equal amount of electrical potential energy A negative charge loses electrical potential energy when it moves in the direction opposite the electric field

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Energy and Charge Movements, cont When the electric field is directed downward, point B is at a lower potential than point A A positive test charge that moves from A to B loses electric potential energy It will gain the same amount of kinetic energy as it loses in potential energy
Summary of Positive Charge Movements and Energy When a positive charge is placed in an electric field It moves in the direction of the field It moves from a point of higher potential to a point of lower potential Its electrical potential energy decreases Its kinetic energy increases

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Summary of Negative Charge Movements and Energy When a negative charge is placed in an electric field It moves opposite to the direction of the field It moves from a point of lower potential to a point of higher potential Its electrical potential energy increases Its kinetic energy increases Work has to be done on the charge for it to move from point A to point B
Electric Potential of a Point Charge

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chapter16 - Chapter 16 Electric Energy and Capacitance...

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