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# chapter23 - Chapter 23 Mirrors and Lenses Notation for...

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Chapter 23 Mirrors and Lenses

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Notation for Mirrors and Lenses The object distance is the distance from the object to the mirror or lens Denoted by p The image distance is the distance from the image to the mirror or lens Images are formed at the point where rays actually intersect or appear to originate Denoted by q The lateral magnification of the mirror or lens is the ratio of the image height to the object height Denoted by M
Images Images are formed at the point where The rays of light actually intersect The rays of light appear to originate Images are classified as real or virtual

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Types of Images for Mirrors and Lenses A real image is one in which light actually passes through the image point Real images can be displayed on screens A virtual image is one in which the light does not pass through the image point The light appears to diverge from that point Virtual images cannot be displayed on screens
More About Images To find where an image is formed, it is always necessary to follow at least two rays of light as they reflect from the mirror

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Magnification The lateral magnification is defined as Magnification doesn’t always mean enlargement The image can be smaller than the object image height h' M object height h
Flat Mirror Simplest possible mirror Properties of the image can be determined by geometry One ray starts at P, follows path PQ and reflects back on itself A second ray follows path PR and reflects according to the Law of Reflection

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Properties of the Image Formed by a Flat Mirror The image is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front p = |q| The image is unmagnified The image height is the same as the object height h’ = h and M = 1
More Image Properties Flat Mirror The image is virtual The image is upright It has the same orientation as the object There is an apparent left-right reversal in the image

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Application Day and Night Settings on Auto Mirrors With the daytime setting, the bright beam of reflected light is directed into the driver’s eyes With the nighttime setting, the dim beam of reflected light is directed into the driver’s eyes, while the bright beam goes elsewhere
Spherical Mirrors A spherical mirror has the shape of a segment of a sphere A concave spherical mirror has the silvered surface of the mirror on the inner, or concave, side of the curve A convex spherical mirror has the silvered surface of the mirror on the outer, or convex, side of the curve

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Concave Mirror, Notation The mirror has a radius of curvature of R Its center of curvature is the point C Point V is the center of the spherical segment A line drawn from C to V is called the principle axis of the mirror
Concave Mirror, Image A point source of light is placed at O Rays are drawn from O After reflecting from the mirror, the rays converge at point I Point I is called the Image point Light actually passes through the point so the image is real

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chapter23 - Chapter 23 Mirrors and Lenses Notation for...

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