Unformatted text preview: General Physics (PHY 2130)
Lecture XIII Refraction of light Snell's law Dispersion and rainbow Mirrors and lens Plane mirrors Concave and convex mirrors Thin lenses http://www.physics.wayne.edu/~apetrov/PHY2130/ Lightning Review
Last lecture: 1. Sound Hooke's law Potential energy of an oscillator Review Problem: Explain why your voice seems to sound richer than usual when you sing in a shower (for those of you who does)... Standing Waves in Air Columns If one end of the air column is closed, a node must exist at this end since the movement of the air is restricted If the end is open, the elements of the air have complete freedom of movement and an antinode exists Tube Open at Both Ends Resonance in Air Column Open at Both Ends In a pipe open at both ends, the natural frequency of vibration forms a series whose harmonics are equal to integral multiples of the fundamental frequency v n = n n = 1, 2, 3, 2L Tube Closed at One End Resonance in an Air Column Closed at One End The closed end must be a node The open end is an antinode v fn = n n = 1, 3, 5, 4L The Ear The outer ear consists of the ear canal that terminates at the eardrum Just behind the eardrum is the middle ear The bones in the middle ear transmit sounds to the inner ear Fig 14.27, p. 452 Slide 41 Reflection and Refraction of Light Dual nature of light In some cases light behaves like a wave (classical E & M light propagation) In some cases light behaves like a particle (photoelectric effect) Einstein formulated theory of light: E = hf h = 6.63 10 34 J s
Plank's constant Optics Light travels at 3.00 x 10 m/s in vaccum Reflection of Light When light encounters boundary leading into second medium, part of incident ray reflects back Smooth surface: 1 1 ' 1 = 1 '
Angle of incidence = angle of reflection Rough surface: Question
Explain the nature of the "red eye" effect in photography: Why some of your pictures show your eyes to be glowing red? Refraction of Light Also, when light encounters boundary leading into second medium, part of incident ray enters the second medium and said to be refracted The path of a light ray through a refracting surface is reversible if velocity decreases: 2< 1 if velocity increases: 2> 1 1
velocity v1 velocity v2 1 ' 2 Angle of refraction sin 2 v2 = = const sin 1 v1 ConcepTest A group of sprinters gather at point P on a parking lot bordering a beach. They must run across the parking lot to a point Q on the beach as quickly as possible. Which path from P to Q takes the least time? You should consider the relative speeds of the sprinters on the hard surface of the parking lot and on loose sand. 1. a 2. b 3. c 4. d 5. e 6. All paths take the same amount of time. ConcepTest A group of sprinters gather at point P on a parking lot bordering a beach. They must run across the parking lot to a point Q on the beach as quickly as possible. Which path from P to Q takes the least time? You should consider the relative speeds of the sprinters on the hard surface of the parking lot and on loose sand. 1. a 2. b 3. c 4. d 5. e 6. All paths take the same amount of time. ConcepTest A group of sprinters gather at point P on a parking lot bordering a beach. They must run across the parking lot to a point Q on the beach as quickly as possible. Which path from P to Q takes the least time? You should consider the relative speeds of the sprinters on the hard surface of the parking lot and on loose sand. 1. a 2. b 3. c 4. d 5. e 6. All paths take the same amount of time.
Note: Anybody can run faster on a hard surface than on loose sand. While the sand distance is smaller for e, the run over the parking lot is much longer. ConcepTest Suppose the sprinters wish to get from point Q on the beach to point P on the parking lot as quickly as possible. Which path takes the least time? 1. a 2. b 3. c 4. d 5. e 6. All paths take the same amount of time. ConcepTest Suppose the sprinters wish to get from point Q on the beach to point P on the parking lot as quickly as possible. Which path takes the least time? 1. a 2. b 3. c 4. d 5. e 6. All paths take the same amount of time. ConcepTest Suppose the sprinters wish to get from point Q on the beach to point P on the parking lot as quickly as possible. Which path takes the least time? 1. a 2. b 3. c 4. d 5. e 6. All paths take the same amount of time. The law of refraction Introduce a concept of index of refraction in medium speed of light in vacuum c n= = speed of light in medium v Note: n is dimensionless and n>1 greater index of refraction, slower speed of light in medium As light travels from one medium to another, its frequency does not change. The law of refraction Rewrite the law of refraction using the concept of index of refraction: v1 n1 = , thus c v2 n2 sin 1 n2 = , or sin 2 n1
diamond glass zircon water air 2.42 1.52 1.92 1.33 1.000293 c n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2
Snell's law Example: angle of refraction in glass
A light ray of wavelength 589 nm (produced by a sodium lamp) traveling through air is incident on a smooth, flat slab of crown glass at an angle of 30.0 to the normal, as sketched in the figure. Find the angle of refraction. Example:
Let's rewrite Snell's law as Given: indexes of refraction: air: n1 = 1.00 glass: n2 = 1.52 wavelength: =589 nm Find: sin 2 = n1 sin 1 n2 (1) Inserting the table data for n in the air and in glass the unknown refraction angle can be determined as 1.00 sin 30 = 0.329 1.52 2 = sin 1 ( 0.329 ) = 19.2 sin 2 =
Note: the ray is bent toward the normal, as expected. (2) 2=? Q: What is the wavelength of this light in glass? n = 0 589 nm = = 387.5 nm n 1.52 ConcepTest A fish swims below the surface of the water at P. An observer at O sees the fish at 1. a greater depth than it really is. 2. the same depth. 3. a smaller depth than it really is. ConcepTest A fish swims below the surface of the water at P. An observer at O sees the fish at 1. a greater depth than it really is. 2. the same depth. 3. a smaller depth than it really is. ConcepTest A fish swims below the surface of the water at P. An observer at O sees the fish at 1. a greater depth than it really is. 2. the same depth. 3. a smaller depth than it really is. Note: The rays emerging from the water surface converge to a point above the fish. Dispersion and prisms An important property of the index of refraction: its value in anything but vacuum depends on the wavelength of light. This phenomenon is called dispersion. Snell's law indicates: light of different wavelengths is bent at different angles when incident on a refracting material. Prisms Rainbow Rainbow
In a rainbow, raindrops in the air act like tiny prisms. Light enters the drop at A, is reflected at the back of the drop at B and leaves the drop at C. In the process the sunlight is broken into a spectrum just like it is in a triangular glass prism. The angle between the ray of sunlight coming in and the ray coming out of the drops is 42 degrees for red and 40 degrees for violet rays. This small angular difference between the returning rays causes us to see the bow. Total internal reflection Consider light moving from the medium with a high index of refraction into one with a lower index of refraction.
n2 < n1 n1 At some angle, c, the refracted light moves n1 sin c = n2 sin 90 = n2 parallel to the boundary: sin c = n2 n1 total internal reflection Applications: Diamond sparkling (low c and proper faceting) Fiber optics Microscopes, binoculars, periscopes... Mirrors and Lens Plane (flat) mirrors Images are formed at the point at which rays of light actually intersect or at which they appear to originate. Images can be Real (light rays actually intersect can be displayed on a screen) Virtual (where light rays appear to come from) p q p = object distance q = image distance Plane (flat) mirrors Images are formed at the point at which rays of light actually intersect or at which they appear to originate. Images can be Real (light rays actually intersect can be displayed on a screen) Virtual (where light rays appear to come from) p q p = object distance q = image distance Q: What kind of image does the plane mirror have? Plane (flat) mirrors Images are formed at the point at which rays of light actually intersect or at which they appear to originate. Images can be Real (light rays actually intersect can be displayed on a screen) Virtual (where light rays appear to come from) p q p = object distance q = image distance Q: What kind of image does the plane mirror have? A: virtual Construction of images: flat mirrors Use two (or more) rays to construct an image h h' Construction of images: flat mirrors Use two (or more) rays to construct an image h h' Note: the image formed by an object placed in front of a flat mirror is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front of it. Construction of images: flat mirrors Use two (or more) rays to construct an image h h' Note: the image formed by an object placed in front of a flat mirror is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front of it. Lateral magnification
M= image height h' = object height h Plane (flat) mirrors: summary
1. 2. The image is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front. The image is unmagnified, virtual and upright (i.e. if the object arrow points upward, so does the image arrow. The opposite of an upright image is an inverted image.) Spherical mirrors
Principal axis Spherical mirrors can be concave (light reflecting from its silvered inner) or f convex (light reflecting from R its silvered outer surface). Useful property: all light rays Center of curvature parallel to the principal axis R = radius of curvature will reflect through the focal f = focal length = R/2 point (where the image will be located).
We will use it to build images... Mirror equations Can use geometry to compute image magnification and image position. 1 1 2 1 + = = p q R f p = object distance h' q q = image distance M = = h p Note: both q and p are positive when both image and object are on the same side of the mirror (q<0 if "inside the mirror"). f is positive for concave mirror and negative for convex mirror. Plane mirror: q=p, so M=q/p=1 (virtual and upright image). Construction of images: concave mirrors Use two (or more) rays to construct an image Case 1: p>R Light ray parallel to the principal axis will be reflected through the focal point Construction of images: concave mirrors Use two (or more) rays to construct an image Case 1: p>R Light ray parallel to the principal axis will be reflected through the focal point Light ray passing through the curvature center will be reflected back Construction of images: concave mirrors Use two (or more) rays to construct an image Case 1: p>R Light ray parallel to the principal axis will be reflected through the focal point Light ray passing through the curvature center will be reflected back Light ray passing through the focal point will be reflected parallel to the principal axis. Note: image is real and inverted Construction of images: concave mirrors Use two (or more) rays to construct an image Case 2: p<f Light ray parallel to the principal axis will be reflected through the focal point Construction of images: concave mirrors Use two (or more) rays to construct an image Case 1: p<f Light ray parallel to the principal axis will be reflected through the focal point Light ray passing through the curvature center will be reflected back Construction of images: concave mirrors Use two (or more) rays to construct an image Case 1: p<f Light ray parallel to the principal axis will be reflected through the focal point Light ray passing through the curvature center will be reflected back Light ray passing through the focal point will be reflected parallel to the principal axis. p>0 q < 0 !!! Note: image is virtual and upright Example 1: concave mirrors
An object is placed in front of a concave mirror at the distance of 80.0 cm. Find (a) distance between the image and the mirror (b) lateral magnification if the focal distance of the mirror is 20.0 cm. Example 1:
(a) Given: mirror parameters: focal distance: f = 20.0 cm radius: R = 2 f = 40.0 cm p = 80.0 cm Find: q =? M=? Use mirror equation: 1 1 1 + = p q f (1) Inserting the available data for f and p the unknown image distance can be determined as 1 1 1 1 1 3 =  =  = q f p 20cm 80cm 80cm (2) 80cm = +26.7cm q= 3 (b) Lateral magnification can be found from q 26.7cm M = = = 0.33 p 80.0cm The image is smaller than the object! Example 2: concave mirrors
An object is placed in front of a concave mirror at the distance of 10.0 cm. Find (a) distance between the image and the mirror (b) lateral magnification if the focal distance of the mirror is 20.0 cm. Example 2:
Given: mirror parameters: focal distance: f = 20.0 cm radius: R = 2 f = 40.0 cm p = 10.0 cm Find: q =? M=? (a) Use mirror equation: 1 1 1 + = p q f (1) Inserting the available data for f and p the unknown image distance can be determined as 1 1 1 1 1 1 =  =  = q f p 20cm 10cm 20cm (2) 20cm = 20cm q= 1 (b) Lateral magnification can be found from M = q (20.0cm) = = +2.00 p 80.0cm The image is larger than the object! Construction of images: convex mirrors Use two (or more) rays to construct an image Same method: Light ray parallel to the principal axis will be reflected through the focal point Construction of images: concave mirrors Use two (or more) rays to construct an image Same method: Light ray parallel to the principal axis will be reflected through the focal point Light ray passing through the curvature center will be reflected back Construction of images: concave mirrors Use two (or more) rays to construct an image Same method: Light ray parallel to the principal axis will be reflected through the focal point Light ray passing through the curvature center will be reflected back Light ray passing through the focal point will be reflected parallel to the principal axis. Note: image is virtual and upright Example: convex mirrors
An object is placed in front of a convex mirror at the distance of 30.0 cm. Find (a) distance between the image and the mirror (b) lateral magnification if the focal distance of the mirror is 20.0 cm. Example:
Given: mirror parameters: focal distance: f = 20.0 cm radius: R = 2 f = 40.0 cm p = 30.0 cm Find: q =? M=? (a) Use mirror equation: 1 1 1 + = p q f (1) Inserting the available data for f and p the unknown image distance can be determined as
1 1 1 1 1 5 =  =  = q f p  20cm 80cm 60cm q =  60cm = 12cm 5 (2) (b) Lateral magnification can be found from q  12cm M = = = +0.40 p  20cm The image is smaller than the object! ...
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 Spring '11
 petrov
 Physics, Light, Snell's Law, Total internal reflection, Geometrical optics, Light ray parallel

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