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Unit 4 Review

Unit 4 Review - 1 During most of the 19th and early 20th...

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1. During most of the 19 th and early 20 th century, appointments to the civil service were based primarily on what? Political Considerations (Patronage) 2. What system began with the Pendleton Act? Why? Merit based – to stop corruption 3. What are some of the broad factors that explain the behavior of bureaucratic officials? Personal interests, party interest, interest groups 4. Why are iron triangles less common today than they once were? Politics too complicated – look at pg 391 first paragraph 5. What is the single most important tactic of the typical lobbyist? Providing info 6. What are the 3 most important sources of funds for lobbying organizations? Direct mail, foundation grants, gov’t grants, membership dues 7. What are the most commonly used strategies used by interest groups to influence the political process? Lobbying, electioneering, litigation, going public 8. What are some of the factors that help explain the President’s difficulty in controlling cabinet-level agencies? It needs to pass through congress, there’s a lack of communication, it’s not direct, congress has been there for awhile so they don’t care as much about the president (who will switch out anyway in 4 years). 9. When looking at the policy-making process, what advantage does a bureaucrat in the federal government have over the president? Continuity of service. 10. In general, independent regulatory commissions are created primarily for what purpose? To regulate one’s particular segment of society. 11. What fact undermines the usefulness to the president having cabinet members as political advisers? They would have bias toward president 12. When looking at the heads of cabinet departments compared to independent regulatory agencies, what is the big difference? Head of cabinet depts. Serve at the pleasure of president, can be removed at his discretion. Heads of Independent Regulatory Agencies Serve for fixed terms of office can be removed only for cause. 13. In selecting members of the White House staff, Presidents primarily seek people who will be what?
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