Chapter 5 Notes

Chapter 5 Notes - Sociology of the Criminal Justice System...

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Sociology of the Criminal Justice System – 2/17/11 Chapter 5: Law Enforcement Today History of the American Police Sir Robert Peel’s Metropolitan Police Act of 1829 o Created London Metropolitan Police: (Four philosophies) (1) Reduce tension and conflict between the police and the public (2) To use nonviolent means in keeping the peace (not allowed to carry firearms) (3) To relieve the military from certain duties (4) To be judged on the absence of crime, rather than through high- visibility police action Colonial Times: o Mirrors the English system o Led by citizens – constables and night watchmen o The Governor hired a sheriff for each county to oversee the formal aspects of law enforcement; sheriffs would select juries The Nineteenth Century: o In 1833, Boston becomes the first city with an organized police department (modeled after the London Metropolitan Police) o In 1844, New York sets the foundation for the modern police department (combined day and night watches with one chief as head of both) The Political Era of policing: o 1840-1930 o Bribery and political corruption are the hallmark of the era o Salaries were low, so many officers supplemented income with illegal activities
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o Called the patronage system or the “spoils” system, because whoever won the political aspects, won the earnings o In 1929, the Wickersham Committee focused on the two areas of American policing that were in need of reform (1) Police brutality The corrupting influences of politics The Reform Era of policing: o 1930-1980 o Increased police professionalism August Vollmer: father of modern policing Started institutions of higher education for policing Emphasized the use of technology (such as scientists helping investigate crimes and police cars) Formed first juvenile justice crime unit O.W. Wilson and the professional model Tried to remove the politics from the police Stressed the need for efficiency through bureaucracy and technology Administrative Reforms Chiefs took more control over departments o Reorganized departments in major cities o Able to better supervise policemen o Started special units (i.e. vice, traffic squads, etc.) Technological innovations (patrol cars, finger printing, forensic studies, etc.) Addressing turmoil in the 1960s Civil rights movement
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Civil unrest led to experience of race riots o The Community Era of policing: 1980 to today Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act Funded by federal government Allowed state and local police departments money to implement police community programs Proactive police efforts (trying to stop crime before it’s committed), as opposed to traditional reactive approaches (reacting to the crime by getting
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2011 for the course SOCL 3371 taught by Professor Raymandberranco during the Spring '09 term at LSU.

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Chapter 5 Notes - Sociology of the Criminal Justice System...

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