CEE340Ch1Ch2

CEE340Ch1Ch2 - Hydraulic and Water Resources CEE 340 Dr....

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Hydraulic and Water Resources CEE 340 Dr. Mohamed Kacem, Ph.D., P.E. Wednesday from 7:10 to 9:50 PM January 12, 2011 Chapter 1 & 2
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CHAPTER THREE GROUNDWATER FLOW
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1. 1 INTRODUCTION
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Chapter 1 Demand for Water 1.1 Development of Water Resources o How much water do we need? We need to know current requirement WE need to predict future use o How much water is available? We need to obtain a reliable estimate of Surface water = Hydrology Groundwater= hydrogeology Deficit must be covered by desalination
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Chapter 1 Demand for Water 1.1 Development of Water Resources
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Major Hydrologic Processes Precipitation (measured by radar or rain gage) Evaporation or ET (loss to atmosphere) Infiltration (loss to subsurface soils) Overland flow (sheet flow toward nearest stream) Streamflow (measured flow at stream gage) Ground water flow and well mechanics Water quality and contaminant transport (S & GW)
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History of Hydrology - 1800s Chezy Channel Formula in the 1780s Open channel flow experiments - 1800s US Army Corps of Eng established (1802) Darcy and Dupuit laws of ground water - 1850s USGS first measured Miss River flow in 1888 Manning’s Eqn - Open Channel Flow - 1889 U.S. Weather Bureau 1891 (NWS) Major Hurricane at Galveston - 1900 (8000 dead)
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History of Hydrology - 1900s Early 1900s saw great expansion of water supply and flood control dams in the western U.S. - in response to Dust Bowl and the Great Depression of the 1920s & 30s U.S. Dept of Agriculture began many hydrologic studies Sherman UH and Horton infiltration theory - mid 1930s U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1930s) - large projects Major Hurricane at Florida - over 2000 deaths Penman (1948) - complete theory of evaporation Hurricane (2005) Katrina and Rita
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Water Resources Engineering and Management
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Chapter 1 Demand for Water 1.1 Development of Water Resources o One Third of US Counties face increased risk of water shortage and drought. o By mid-century climate change will mean a high or extreme risk of water shortages in 14 states, Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Florida Idaho Kansas Mississippi Montana Nebraska Nevada New Mexico Oklahoma Texas
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Chapter 1 Demand for Water 1.1 Development of Water Resources o How are the requirement satisfied by supplies? Comparison between supplies and distribution IF supplies exceed the demands, we choose direct withdraw from source Adequate storage is always recommend for national security purpose » Dams and control structures are designed to store and regulate the water flow » Other water facilities are required i.e pump station, pipeline
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1. 2 ASSESSMENT OF DEMANDS
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1.2 Assessment of Demands Water demand Residential Commercial (school, hospital, navel base…) Industrial (nuclear power plant, drug manufacturing, food processing) Irrigation (golf course, agriculture) Water availability in the vicinity
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CEE340Ch1Ch2 - Hydraulic and Water Resources CEE 340 Dr....

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