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Final Fair Game Sheet

Final Fair Game Sheet - Thinking Geons and"impossible...

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Thinking Geons and "impossible figures": Biederman has proposed that geons serve as the basic building blocks of all the objects we recognize- we recognize objects by first recognizing their component geons. Same as impossible figures, except that those change with perception (triangle, never ending stairs) Prototype theory of meaning: Prototype- familiar or typical example. We decide whether an object belongs to a category by determining how well it resembles the prototypes of that category by forming concepts. Ex- Soda= Coke Spreading activation: Process by which we link a word or concept to related concepts. Priming a concept gets it started and a small remainder of a concept makes it easier for someone to think of it. Ex- hear Flower, primed to think Rose, Violet, Sunflower, etc; hear Red, combination of Flower and Red primes you to think Rose. Stroop effect and automatization: the way you’re used to seeing something vs. the way you’re asked to see something; the tendency to read the words instead of saying the color of ink/rows of numbers. Mental rotation and map image-scanning studies: subjects had to judge whether two stimuli are the same as each other but viewed from different perspectives. Roger Shepard and Jacqueline Metzler reasoned that if people visualize mental images, then the time it takes them to rotate a mental image should be similar to the time needed to rotate a real object. Change blindness: the frequent failure to detect changes in parts of a scene; see sudden changes, yet not recognize anything that occurs slowly or whole blinking or moving your eyes (esp. if working memory is occupied) Attentional blink: We don’t attend equally to all points in time; we cannot focus on all points in time. It takes time to shift attention from one item to another. During a brief time after we perceive one stimulus, it is difficult to attend to something else. Nature of expertise: Expertise within a given field that enables them to solve problems quickly with a minimum of error, Requires approx. 10 years of intense practice; even someone born with talent needs years of work to develop expertise. Algorithms and heuristics: Algorithm - a mechanical, repetitive procedure for solving a problem or testing every hypothesis. Ex- alphabetizing a list Heuristics - strategies for simplifying a problem or for guiding an investigation. Quick, unconscious, and not deliberated. Used when you have to make a decision with limited info; ex- which city has greater population and you chose city that you’ve heard of. Representativeness heuristic: Use a few instances to represent an entire category. Assumption that an item that resembles members of some category is probably another member of that
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category. Ex- don’t buy a certain kind of car b/c friend’s blew up or if something looks, walks, and sounds like a duck we assume it’s a duck Base-rate information: How common two categories are when deciding whether something belongs in one category or another (look at how closely it resembles two categories and then at
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Final Fair Game Sheet - Thinking Geons and"impossible...

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