Physiology130EXAM_oct2003

Physiology130EXAM_oct2003 - DIRECTIONS Each of the...

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Unformatted text preview: DIRECTIONS: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the ONE that is BEST in each case and blacken the appropriate space on the Scantron sheet. I. Intracellular fluid is composed of: (A) Plasma only (B) Plasma and interstitial fluid (C) Interstitial fluid only (D) Blood 69 None of the above 2. Which of the following concerning the cell membrane is correct? (A) (B) 6% (E) It is a completely impermeable barrier It is permeable only to water It contains phospholipid molecules arranged in a monolayer The phosphate heads of the phospholipid molecules face outwards towards the aqueous regions Both C and D are correct 3. Which of the following is most likely to diffuse through the phospholipid portion of the cell membrane Without the use of a protein pore, channel or carrier? (C) (D) (E) (A) (B) @ (D) (E) Small fat-soluble substances, e. g. Oxygen Large water-soluble substances, e g. Glucose ' Small water-soluble substances, e. g. Ions Proteins Both A and C are correct Which of the following is correct concerning osmosis? Solute particles move from an area of high solute concentration to an area of low solute concentration Solute particles move from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration Solvent particles move from an area of high solvent concentration to an area of low solvent concentration Solvent particles move from an area of low solvent concentration to an area of high solvent concentration Both A and C are correct DIRECTIONS: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the ONE that is BEST in each case and blacken the appropriate space on the Scantron sheet. 5. Solution X Solution Y 30 mM KCl 40 mM KCl Two solutions (X and Y shown in diagram above) are separated by a membrane that is impermeable to K+ and Cl'. If solution X is a 30 mM solution of KCl and solution Y is a 40 mM solution of KCl, in which direction will water move? @ From solution X to solution Y (B) From solution Y to solution X (C) Water will not move (D) Equal amounts of water will move in both directions (E) None of the above is correct 6. Which one of the following is correct concerning the difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport? (A) (B) © (D) (E) Facilitated diffusion requires protein carriers to move substances across the cell membrane and active transport does not Facilitated diffusion shows chemical specificity and active transport does not Active transport requires ATP and facilitated‘diffusion does not Active transport shows competitive inhibition and facilitated diffusion does not Both A and B are correct 7. The osmolality of red blood cells is 300 mOsm/kg water. What will happen to a red blood cell if it is placed in 1 kg of water that contains 150 mM NaCl and 150 mM glucose? (A) Nothing will happen to the cell since the solution is isotonic (B) The cell will swell since the solution is hypotonic (C) The cell will swell since the solution is hypertonic (D) The cell will shrink since the solution is hypotonic @ The cell will shrink since the solution is hypertonic DIRECTIONS: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the ONE that is BEST in each case and blacken the appropriate space on the Scantron sheet. 8. Which one of the following statements regarding the Na+/K+ pump is INCORRECT? (A) 3 Na+ ions are transported out of the cell for every 2 K+ ions pumped into the cell (B It requires ATP It is a form of facilitated diffusion (D) It contributes to the resting membrane potential (E) It moves the Na+ and K+ ions against their concentration gradient 9. Put the following sequence of events in the correct order for an action potential: 1. Membrane depolarizes to +45mV 2. K+ rushes out of the cell, down its electrochemical gradient. 3. The axon hillock depolarizes and voltage-gated Na+ channels open. 4. Membrane begins to repolarize (+45 mV to —70 mV). 5. Na+ rushes into the cell down its electrochemical gradient. 6. K+ continues to rush out of the cell and the membrane hyperpolarizes (—90 mV). 7. Na+ channels become inactivated while K+ channels begin opening. 8. Membrane potential returns to resting value of —70 mV. 9. KJr channels begin to close and Kir no longer leaves the cell. The correct order is: (A) 3,1,5,,7,29,6,8,4 (B) l,3,5,27,6,4,9,8 (C) 1,5,37,2,4,9,8,6 @. 3,5,l,,,724,6,9,8 (E) 5,3,1,2,7,6,4,9,8 DIRECTIONS: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by 10. ll. 12. 13. five suggested answers or completions. Select the ONE that is BEST in each case and blacken the appropriate space on the Scantron sheet. The deficit following damage to the right lateral spinothalamic tract would be: (A) (B) (C) (D) @ loss of temperature sensation below the damage on the ipsilateral side of the damage inability to regulate temperature on the side contralateral to the damage loss of proprioceptive information from the ipsilateral side below the damage loss of touch and pressure information from the limbs on the side opposite to the damage none of the above Oligodendrocytes may be involved in the formation of (A) (B) (C) (E) the blood-brain barrier the cerebrospinal fluid-brain barrier myelin sheaths around the axons of peripheral motor axons myelin sheaths around axons found in white matter of the spinal cord cerebrospinal fluid Post-tetanic potentiation is a result of increased concentration of which ion in the pre- synaptic terminal? (A) (B) @ (D) (E) Na+ C1- Ca++ K+ Mg++ In the central nervous system, the cells that act as scavengers are (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) schwann cells microglia ependymocytes astrocytes oligodendrocytes DIRECTIONS: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the ONE that is BEST in each case and blacken the appropriate space on the Scantron sheet. 14. The ventrobasal complex of the thalamus (A) acts as a relay station for pain information (B) relays information directly to the somatosensory cortex (C) is involved in the transmission of fine touch (D) relays sensory information from proprioceptors to the primary sensory cortex all the above DIRECTIONS: Each question below consists of five lettered headings on the diagram. For each question select the one lettered heading on the diagram that is most closely related to it. A lettered heading may be the correct answer for none or more than one of the numbered questions. 15. This area of the brain is involved in blood pressure regulation 0 16. This brain area is involved in memory C 17. This brain area is involved in equilibrium and motor coordination A 18. Damage to this area produces sensory aphasia E 19. Primary auditory cortex C 20. This area of the brain is involved in sleep I? DIRECTIONS: For each of the statements below, ONE or MORE of the completion given is correct. Answer (A) if only 1, 2 and 3 are correct (B) if only 1 and 3 are correct (C) if only 2 and 4 are correct (D) if only 4 is correct (E) if ALL are correct 21. Simple diffusion through a protein channel can be regulated by the size of the molecule the charge on the molecule the concentration gradient for that molecule the amount of energy (ATP) available for transport eww~ 22. During the depolarization phase of the action potential, 1Cr flows into the cell The inactivation gates of the voltage gated Na+ channels are initially open The depolarization is carried by C1' ions leaving the neuron The activation gate of the voltage gated Na+ channel is open eWNH 23. Which of the following about voltage gated Na+ and K+ channels is correct? 1. Both the Na+ and K+ voltage gated channels are open during the entire action 0 potential ‘ 2. The Na+ voltage gated channels open after the K+ voltage gated channels 3. The K+ voltage gated channels become inactivated during part of the action potential 4. The slowly closing K+ voltage gated channels cause the hyperpolarization phase of the action potential 24. The absolute refractory period ,3 1. ensures that action potentials cannot be added together 2. causes the action potential to be propagated slower in unmyelinated fibers 3. is caused by the inactivation of the Na+ voltage gated channels 4. occurs after the hyperpolarizing phase of the action potential DIRECTIONS: For each of the statements below, ONE or MORE of the completions given is correct. Answer (A) if only 1, 2 and 3 are correct (B) if only 1 and 3 are correct (C) if only 2 and 4 are correct (D) if only A is correct (E) if fl are correct 25. Excitatory post-synaptic potentials and generator potentials share the following characteristics: both are elicited at the axon hillock both result from changes in K+ conductance across the membrane 1. 2. 3. both are of constant amplitude both can be temporally summed 26. The peripheral nervous system consists of: afferent nerves to the central nervous system motor axons to skeletal muscles parasympathetic nervous system dorsal root ganglia g. 27. During pre—synaptic inhibition, Ca++ influx in the pre-synaptic terminal is affected by the 1. frequency of action potentials invading the pre-synaptic terminal 0 2‘ duration of the action potential invading the pre-synaptic terminal $3 extracellular concentration of Ca++ amplitude of the action potential invading the pre-synaptic terminal 28. Generator potentials . 1. can be conducted along sensory nerves to their terminals 0 2. are only produced by the release of a neurotransmitter 3. are of constant amplitude can be changed by the rate of application of the stimulus DIRECTIONS: For each of the statements below, ONE or MORE of the completions given is correct. Answer (A) if only 1= 2 and 3 are correct (B) if only 1 and 3 are correct (C) if only 2 and 4 are correct (D) if only 54 is correct (E) if ALL are correct 29. A hockey player is checked into the boards during a game and lays on the ice without movement. Without moving the hockey player, the trainer wants to assess if there is some spinal cord damage. If the player has sustained damage to the left ventral half of the spinal cord, the player would .4org not feel a pin prick to her right toe not feel the trainer touching her left toe 4. feel pressure applied to her right toe é feel the movement of her left toe 3 O. Frontal lobe 1. receives information about limb location ® contributes to higher intellectual function 3. contains Wernicke’s sensory speech area @ damage results in motor aphasia é; Minitest I [\J \o o H U: Question Answers 1 E 2 D 3 A 4 C 5 A 6 C 7 E 8 C 9 D 10 E 11 D 12 C 13 B 14 E 15 D 16 C 17 A 18 B 19 C 20 D 21 A 22 C 23 D 24 B 25 D 26 E 27 D 28 D A C DJ 0 ...
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