S Amino Acid Metabolism 2

S Amino Acid Metabolism 2 - Amino Acid Metabolism. Part II....

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Amino Acid Metabolism. Part II. • Breakdown of amino acids • Genetic diseases of amino acid metabolism • Sulfonamide antibiotics Learning Objectives • Heme metabolism • Fixation of Nitrogen • Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids
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Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids • Mammals cannot synthesize certain amino acids and must obtain them from the diet. These amino acids are called essential amino acids . Other amino acids are called nonessential amino acids. • Essential amino acids: - Basic Arg + , His + , Lys + , - Branched-chain Ile, Leu, Val - Aromatic Trp, Phe - Other Met , Thr • Nonessential amino acids: - Acidic Asp - , Glu - - Amidic Asn, Gln - Small-size Gly, Ala, Cys, Ser - Other Pro, Tyr
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Degradation of Amino Acids Fig. 21-13 • Oxidation of amino acids yields 10 - 15% of the metabolic energy generated by animals. • Standard amino acids are degraded to one of seven metabolic intermediates. Depending on the pathways of degradation, amino acids are divided into two groups: glucogenic and ketogenic
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Degradation of Amino Acids Fig. 21-13 - Glucogenic amino acids are degraded to the intermediates of the citric acid cycle (pyruvate, - ketoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, fumarate, or oxaloacetate). These intermediates may be further converted to glucose . - Ketogenic amino acids are broken down to acetyl-CoA or acetoacetate, the substances that may be converted to fatty acids or ketone bodies . • Some amino acids are glucogenic and ketogenic.
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Tryptophan degradation pathway involves 16 reactions that lead to acetoacetate . • Phenylalanine degradation starts with conversion to tyrosine. The reaction is catalyzed by phenylalanine hydroxylase . Further route follows the pathway of tyrosine catabolism. Tyrosine
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2011 for the course SCIENCE 2EE3 taught by Professor Zhorov during the Spring '11 term at McMaster University.

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S Amino Acid Metabolism 2 - Amino Acid Metabolism. Part II....

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