StOC2112 CH12 Spring 2011

StOC2112 CH12 Spring 2011 - StOC 2112 StOC CH 12 Becoming...

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Unformatted text preview: StOC 2112 StOC CH 12: Becoming an Effective Persuader Preview Preview Crafting a Persuasive Presentation Common Persuasive Strategies Persuasive Speaking Assignment Crafting a Persuasive Presentation Audience Analysis Audience Analysis Creating a profile of the individuals gathered for a presentation Central Assumption of Audience Analysis • The more specific information you have about your audience the better you can tailor your persuasive act to their needs Benefits of Audience Analysis Advantage to the presenter : Reduced chance of poor performance Increased sensitivity to audiences Increased confidence level Benefits of Audience Analysis Advantage to audience: Better comprehension of information Increased interest in topic Ability to act from the perception of an informed opinion 3 Core Concerns to Audience Analysis Needs of your audience Types of people who comprise your audience Situational details your presentation e.g., genre of speech, location, logistics, ◦ Consider Your Audience Create a demographic profile ◦ Statistical data relative to your audience members’ background ◦ Who will be your audience members be? ◦ Where do they live? ◦ What do they do for a living? ◦ Key attitudes, ideologies, values, and beliefs of your audience ◦ What are the audience's values (ideas about right & wrong) ◦ What are the audience's beliefs (ideas about true & false) ◦ What does this audience like? ◦ What does this audience dislike? Create a psychographic profile Two Main Audience Types Supportive Hostile ◦ Requires a unifying style that reinforces shared beliefs and values ◦ Requires a pragmatic style that can convince neutral or opposition listeners to change minds Chapter 12 Proof What Is Proof? Evidence connected through reasoning that is used to persuade Evidence: Information used to support claims Reasoning: The means through which people comprehend differences between opposing claims 13 Sources of Proof Direct Experience Evidence Dramatic ◦ Narratives ◦ Testimony ◦ Anecdotes ◦ Participation and Demonstration Objective Evidence 14 ◦ Statistics Organization Why Organize? Communicate ideas effectively Audience’s interest and attention Creates perception of: ◦ competence ◦ confidence ◦ credibility Forms of Organization Chronological ◦ Traces subject’s development over time ◦ Ex: Iraq war’s a failure Spatial ◦ Treats subject in directional pattern ◦ Ex: National overcrowding of schools Topical ◦ Breaks topic down into subparts where each piece caries equal weight Organization by Stock Issues • most useful when proposing a change in policy • The stock issues are: • The need for change • A plan to solve the need • Your proof statements showing that the plan meets the need or removes the problem(s) you have raised and recognized. 18 Five Steps of Organization by Motivated Sequence 1. The Attention step – captures the attention of the audience 2. The Need Step – convinces the audience that they are 3. Visualization Step – draws a verbal picture 4. Satisfaction Step – offers a way to satisfy the positive need or to avoid some negative consequences action based on first four steps. losing something, are about to lose something, or could be gaining something but aren't 5. Action Step – Makes it easy for persuadee to take an 19 Language Use strong qualifiers boring We’re exciting We’re pleased … thrilled … This car is fast … This new roadster is virtually supersonic … You try it … We think the market will respond favorably to this new product line. We’re glad Doug Bacon is now part of the executive management staff. from the recent analysts meeting were positive. Results Use vivid details “I own an old pickup truck. It’s pretty beat-up.” “My old pick-up truck. It’s a green Chevy. The outside looks like it’s been beaten all over with a tire iron. When you open the door all this junk falls out – snuff cans, jumper cables, bottles, a piece of wood I’ve been whittling on.” JJW Use Imagery eye of the storm tip of the iceberg trump card secret weapon close the gap meltdown Imagery at work … “the … chemical warheads, that the U.N. inspectors found recently, this discovery could very well be … the tip of the submerged iceberg. The question before us, all my friends, is when will we see the rest of the submerged iceberg?” And more … Still more … Imagery is brain food it’s a memory maker Use Rhetorical Figures • • • • • • • Metaphor “Let freedom ring” Parallelism “If I had sneezed.. If I had sneezed..” Antithesis “Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country” Allusion “Fourscore and seven years ago” Personification “Money can eat at your soul” Alliteration “Reduce, reuse, and recycle” Assonance “Low moans of our soldiers” Use Humor • Jokes • Sarcasm • Irony Build Your Credibility • Trust – we trust persuaders based on what we know of their past, cues they give off as they communicate • Expertise – generally, we look for expertise in past success at a task • State your credibility in presentations • Dynamism –an elusive quality. It is sometimes related to physical appearance, in that attractive people tend to hold attention better than less attractive persons 31 Building Trust: Smiling Building Waitresses, Therapists, Cheating more tips more competent students, greater leniency inspire more attention Teachers, Clumsy people, more help Beware Adaptors Beware “self-touching” behaviors ◦ “adapted” from bad habits of childhood ◦ or from observing parents & siblings a.k.a. “nervous habits” ◦ shaking ◦ tapping ◦ picking ◦ rubbing bad for persuasiveness 6-8 minute speech • Prepare athe conceptspersuasive in lecture applying discussed points • Worth 30 participation of persuasive attempt and Grade based on quality Persuasive Speech: Guidelines • Use power point • You chooseortopic: Either persuade us about something teach us that we’re being • • persuaded about something. Grading form posted on BB (later this week) Use 6 sources or more (2 must be academic) • delivery you use the sign up sheet to • Make surethe date of your presentation determine • On day of presentation bring the following STAPLED together: Persuasive Speech: Guidelines Dress act •contextandyourprofessionally for the of presentation If you •debateare stumped used the in class topics. • Grading form • Print out of PP slides (print six per page) • Bibliography Common Tactics of Persuasion • The Foot in the Door •Start with a small request then go big Door in the Face •Ask for a big request then go small 36 Common Tactics of Persuasion • The Yes­Yes Technique •Gets target to respond positively to appeal while withholding the key request until last 37 Common Tactics of Persuasion • The Tactic of Asking Not “If” but “Which” • Offers multiple options instead of yes or no 38 Common Tactics of Persuasion • The Partial Commitment • Get a person committed in some act to get them to partake in final request 39 Common Tactics of Persuasion • Planting • Uses one or more of the five senses to open a channel to the audiences memory 40 Common Tactics of Persuasion • The IOU •Get listeners to feel they owe you something 41 Common Tactics of Persuasion hard sell = “do or believe x” ◦ you’re there to persuade ◦ you know it & they know it ◦ no gray area ◦ “pushing” soft sell = “(desired action implied)” ◦ focus on arguments not conclusion ◦ “leading” people vs. pushing 42 Message Exposure Does repetition matter? Does repetition matter? Does repetition matter? Does repetition matter? Does repetition matter? Does repetition matter? Does repetition matter? Does repetition matter? Does repetition matter? 43 Message Exposure Zajonc (1968) familiar objects more liked than unfamiliar ramifications: ◦ things “grow on us” ◦ familiarity does not always breed contempt ◦ tastes can be acquired faces, after repeated viewing, more: 44 ◦ attractive (2004 study) ◦ likeable (2001 study) Whoever Heard of Sarah Palin? Whoever Or Mike Huckabee? Discussion Tell us about a time you had one of these persuasive tactics used on you or a time you used it on others ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/11/2011 for the course STRCC 2112 taught by Professor Joshhanan during the Spring '11 term at Temple.

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