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Political2_use_fa2010

Political2_use_fa2010 - Political Geography Definitions...

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Political Geography Ø Definitions Ø States and Nations Ø Boundaries Ø Superpowers and Super-states Ø I nternal Structure Ø Electoral Systems
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Why Politics ? Ø Competition for resources. Ø Conflict - the regulation and maintenance of order. Ø Cooperation - the legitimacy of power and the cooperation of the masses with the authorities.
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Stages of Political Development Ø Egalitarian Society : Small groups such as hunter gatherers. All resources are shared and there is no permanent leadership - leadership tasks are allocated according to ability. Ø Rank Society : Tribal leadership - with advisory councils - shared resources groups of 300-1000. Ø Stratified Society : politically unstable - hereditary leadership structure and differential access to resources - no permanent institutions of control. Ø State Society : Differential access to resources - enforced and legitimized by institutions of control - modern society.
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View of territory Ø 1-3 - Society defined by people - societal definition of territory. Ø 4 - territorial definition of society - modern map of the world - every part is claimed - possible to declare war by stepping over a line.
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Antarctica – claimed areas
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Modern World System Ø All places are claimed by states. Ø Only citizens of states have rights. Ø Rights are increasingly upheld by international institutions and treaties (U.N., Geneva Conventions, International Commission on Human Rights, European Court of Justice etc.). Ø Large and powerful states and their satellites can (and do) ignore international institutions and treaties.
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States and Nations Ø A state (or a country) is an area of territory that is legally autonomous. e.g. The United States, France, Nigeria, India Ø A nation is a people that share a common heritage and sense of identity e.g. Cherokee, Palestinians, Russians, Masai, Welsh Ø A nation-state occurs when the geographical extent of the nation and the state are the same – very rare e.g. Iceland, Japan
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State Ø Fixed borders – control of entire territory. Ø Formal recognition of borders. Ø State level institutions - central government - legal system – military. Ø State iconography - flag - seals - currency - stamps etc.
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Decolonization – the creation of new States
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Nation Ø Must have a shared identity (historic, religious, linguistic, or a combination of all three).
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