MUSIC 162 CD 2 notes - MUSIC 162 - SPRING 2008 American Pop...

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MUSIC 162 - SPRING 2008 American Pop Song Shannon Dudley Listening Examples CD #2 "Race" Records and "Hillbilly" Music: 1920s-1930s Race Records 1. King Joe Oliver's Creole Jazz Band: "Dippermouth Blues" [Richmond, IN, 1923] The music that came to be known as jazz developed in New Orleans around 1900. It drew upon a variety of sources, including white and black popular song traditions, ragtime, brass band music, black church hymns and funeral dirges, field hollers, and blues. Since the activities of recording companies were largely confined to large cities in the North and Midwest before the late 1920s, there is limited evidence as to what early New Orleans jazz sounded like. The first recording with the term "jazz" on its label was made by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band, a white group, in 1917. The ODJB recording exemplfies the influence of African-American musical sensibilities on white musicians, and started a jazz craze among middle-class whites, but it is not a good example of New Orleans style. The first representative recordings of jazz were made by the cornettist King Joe Oliver (1885- 1938) and his Creole Jazz Band in 1923. Like many other southern black musicians, Oliver moved north after World War One in order to make a better living. In 1923 he summoned the brilliant young musician Louis Armstrong (1901-1971) to Chicago to play second cornet in the band, which also included Honoré Dutrey on trombone, Johnny Dodds on clarinet, Lil Hardin Armstrong on piano, Baby Dodds on drums, and, on this cut, Bill Johnson on banjo and vocals. The King Oliver band was a collection of individuals who knew each other's playing so well that they could perform a kind of polyphonic group improvisation. In New Orleans style, the trumpet or cornet states the melody (with embellishments), the clarinet improvises a counter-melody above and around the trumpet, and the trombone improvises a simpler melody, often hitting the roots (bass notes) of the chords below the trumpet. Solos were usually backed up by riffs (repeated patterns) played by the other instruments. In the earliest recordings, it is difficult to find a place where all of the instruments are not playing some role. Form: 12-bar blues. 2. Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five [1928]: "West End Blues" By 1925, Louis Armstrong had left King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band in Chicago and Fletcher Henderson's band in New York and was ready to strike out on his own. His fiery solos and unbelievable use of the upper reaches of the cornet and trumpet were becoming known and he was achieving stardom through his playing.
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Okeh Records agreed to record him and any band he had in 1925, and Armstrong assembled four of his friends, Johnny St. Cyr on banjo, Lil Hardin on piano, Johnny Dodds on clarinet, and Kid Ory on trombone to record the first of his Hot Five and Hot Seven recordings. Absolutely seminal in the history of jazz, these recordings were a watershed in his career and a turning point for jazz in general. Moving beyond the aesthetic of "collective improvisation", these recordings
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MUSIC 162 CD 2 notes - MUSIC 162 - SPRING 2008 American Pop...

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