Lecture 03_Ch14b - Forming Bonds A bond can be formed a...

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A σ bond can be formed a number of ways: s, s overlap s, p overlap p, p overlap Forming Bonds Only orbitals of the same phase (+, +) can form bonds
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For every bonding orbital we form, we also form an anti-bonding orbital: Anti-bonding Orbitals
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MO Theory in Bonding Homonuclear atoms (H2, O2, F2, N2) H2 (Only 1s orbitals available for bonding)
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AOs must overlap in space in order to participate in MOs Covalent bonding is dominated by the valence orbitals (only valence orbitals are shown in the MOs) Covalent Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomics
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Covalent Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomics Region of shared e- density + +
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Valence configurations of the 2nd row atoms: Li Be B C N O F 2s1 2s2 2s22p1 2s22p2 2s22p3 2s22p4 2s22p5 So far we have focused on bonding involving the s orbitals. What happens when we have to consider the p orbitals?
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For diatomic molecules containing atoms with valence electrons in the p orbitals, we must consider three possible bonding interactions: σ - type π - type π - type = nucleus Fig 14.35
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(+ ) constructive mixing (–) destructive mixing Fig 14.36
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Major limitations of the LE model: 2) Doesn’t easily deal with unpaired electrons (incorrectly predicts physical properties in some cases) Example: O2 - Lewis dot structure O=O - All electrons are paired Contradicts experiment! .. .. .. .. Experiments show O2 is paramagnetic
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A quick note on magnetism… Paramagnetic The molecule contains unpaired electrons and is attracted to (has a positive susceptibility to) an applied magnetic field Diamagnetic The molecule contains only paired electrons and is not attracted to (has a negative susceptibility to) an applied magnetic field
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N2 Video O2 Video
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