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Lecture 04_Ch14c - Homonuclear H2 Heteronuclear HF...

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Homonuclear: H2 Nonpolar covalent bond (450 kJ/mol bond) Heteronuclear: H F Polar covalent bond (565 kJ/mol bond) Figure 14.45 Figure 14.26 Electronegativity
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Ele ctr on eg ati vit y Because F (EN = 4.0) is more electronegative than H (EN = 2.2) , the electrons move closer to F . (Table 13.2 - electronegativities) This gives rise to a polar bond: H F Figure 14.45 Electrons are not equally shared in heteronuclear bonds H F
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σ Antibonding ( σ *) Mostly H(1s) σ Bonding Mostly F(2p) H F H F M.O.s of a Polar Covalent Bond: H F Zumdahl simplifies model and only considers electrons involved in bond.
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MOs OF XY MOLECULES Equal or unequal e sharing between 2 atoms is reflected in the composition of the MOs: When 2 atoms X and Y have the same electronegativity (purely covalent bond), their overlapping AOs have the same energy , and the bonding and anti- bonding MOs are each half X and half Y AO. All electrons spend equal time near X and Y . Examples : N2, O2, F2 . If EN(Y) > EN(X) ( polar covalent X ˜ + ¸ Y * ), the Y AO has lower energy than the X AO. The bonding MO is more like the Y AO and the anti-bonding MO more like the X AO. Bonding e spend more time near Y than X ; vice versa for anti-bonding [email protected] . Example : CO .
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MOs OF XY MOLECULES CO Bond Order = 3.0 (same as N2). CO Bond Energy = 1,076 kJ/mol (N2 = 945 kJ/mol). Isoelectronic to CO and N2: CN–, NO+.
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