10 - CHAPTER 8: TEST BANK SOME ANSWERS AND COMMENTS ON THE...

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CHAPTER 8: TEST BANK SOME ANSWERS AND COMMENTS ON THE TEXT DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. GNP per capita fails to account for the composition of GNP and the distribution of income. Better indicators focus on the end results of economic conditions and policy, such as average life expectancies, infant mortality rates, and literacy rates. 2. Table 7-1 in Chapter 7 indicates that the poorest fifth of the population received 3.7% and the 2 nd poorest fifth of the population received 9.0% of total money income in the U.S. in 1999. This amounts to 12.7% for the poorest 40% of the population. This figure compares with numbers in the LDCs cited in Chapter 8 ranging from 8% in Brazil to 23% in Laos. 3. There is hunger in a world of plenty because unequal income distribution prevents many poor people and poor countries from purchasing food (there is plenty of food available on the worldwide basis). 4. Land reform is difficult to achieve, in part because larger landowners tend to be politically powerful. Some countries have found success by developing new land or by the government “selling off” its land, and awarding it to landless people or small landowners. Government confiscation of land without payment is probably most controversial. 5. These programs can directly improve people’s well-being, while at the same time improving their productivity and the productivity of the country. 6. Far too many development projects have failed because people, including women, have not been active participants in the process, including determining whether the program is desirable in the first place, and how it can best be designed in order to meet their needs. 7. China is notorious for its one- or two-child policies, with stringent coercion through economic sanctions and forced contraceptive use and abortions. While this has been effective, it raises very serious ethical issues and runs contrary to the development objectives in the text. 8. Efforts to improve conditions in LDC cities may encourage greater rural-urban migration, creating even worse urban problems. It is important to emphasize agricultural development and rural amenities along side of urban improvements, in order to encourage many rural residents to stay in the rural sector.
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9. Developed countries can play an important role through development assistance, debt
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10 - CHAPTER 8: TEST BANK SOME ANSWERS AND COMMENTS ON THE...

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