antibiotics - Antibiotics and Resistance Chapter 21...

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Antibiotics and Resistance Chapter 21 animations: And please know terms at the beginning of chapter. Animation Quiz - Antibiotic Inhibition of Protein Synthesis Animation Quiz - Antiviral Agents Animation Quiz - Cell Wall Antibiotics I. Antibiotics a. Key players 2. Paul Erlich- a. Wanted to find a “magic bullet”. , b. Salvarsan-first microbial agent 3. Alexander Fleming-discovered the first antibiotic (penicillin) in 1928. Naturally occurring substance produced by fungus or other microbes a. Chain and Florey-followed through on Fleming’s findings to isolate and produce penicillin. b. Were successful in mass producing, saved thousands of lives in WWII. a. Terms (Section 21.2) 4. Selective toxicity 5. Broad spectrum vs narrow spectrum. 6. Therapeutic index-
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8. Drug combinations can result in: a. Antagonistic effects- interfere with each other b. Synergistic effects-enhance each other c. Additive effects-give the same effects as they would alone. 9. Innate or intrinsic resistance-organism cannot be acted upon because of inherent resistance. a. Mechanisms of action(Fig. 21.2) Differing antibiotics target different components of microbes. 1. Cell wall synthesis: All of these antibiotics act by disrupting peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell wall, therefore weakening cell wall. a. lactam drugs (Table 21.1, Fig. 21.3, Fig.21.5, Fig. 21.6)- active against growing/dividing microorganisms . They bind and inactivate the transpeptidases used to create the peptidoglycan wall (transpeptidases are also called penicillin binding proteins) b. All have a lactam ring structure ( Fig. 21.4). These antibiotics can be inactivated by lactamase enzymes (penicillinases) produced by microorganisms depending on their structure. i.
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2011 for the course MCRO 251 taught by Professor Lorrainecramer during the Spring '09 term at UNC.

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antibiotics - Antibiotics and Resistance Chapter 21...

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