Chapter 26 - Chapter 26: Terms & Questions Points: 100...

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Points: 100 Part 1: Terms Selim III- He was the Ottoman Sultan from 1789 to 1807. He attempted to improve administration efficiency and build a new army and navy. However, Janissaries assassinated him in 1807. Mahmud II- He was the 19 th Ottoman sultan, who built a private, professional army. It crushed the Janissaries in 1826. He then set out to reform the Ottoman empire to more Western. ayan- These were the provincial notables that Mahmud II had put into a formal submission to the throne duing the 19 th century. ulama- These were the religious experts, They urged Mahmud II to bring the Ottoman Empire was to its original roots. However, he continued with his reforms throughout his reign in the 19 th century, Tanzimat reforms- These were the western-style reforms within the Ottoman Empire between 1839 and 1876. This included a European-influenced constitution in 1876. Abdul Hamid- He was the Ottoman sultan from 1878 to 1908. He tried to return to despotic absolutism, nullified the constitution, and restricted civil liberties. He actions prompted the forming of the Young Turks. Ottoman Society for Union & Progress (Young Turks)- The men in this society were intellectuals and political agitators seeking the return of the constitution. They gained power through a coup in 1908. Mamluks- They were the Turkish rulers of Egypt under the Ottomans, but they were defeated by Napoleon in 1798. This defeat revealed the vulnerability of the Muslim world. Murad- He was the head of the coalition of Mamluk rulers in Egypt. He opposed the Napoleonic invasion of Egypt, but suffered a devastating defeat in the late 18 th and early 19 th centuries. He failed to destroy the Mamluk government in Egypt and revealed vulnerability of the Muslim core. Muhammad Ali- He controlled Egypt in 1811, after the fall of the Mamluks. They began the modernization process based on Western models, and his army was strong enough to challenge the Ottoman government in the 1830s. However, he died in 1848 and was unable to leave a lasting change. khedives- These were descendants of Muhammad and rulers of Egypt from 1867 until 1952. University of Al-Azhar- In the mid-19 th century, this became a key place for Muslim thinkers to meet. Some of these scholars called for a jihad, and some thought that the Muslim world could only be saves by the return of ancient religious patterns. Suez Canal- This Canal was built to link the Mediterranean and Read seas. It was opened in 1869. This led to the British occupation of Egypt as a way to safeguard their financial and strategic interests. al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh- These men were Muslim thinkers in the late 19 th century. They stressed the need for adoption of Western scientific learning and technology. They also noted how important rational inquiry was within Islam. Ahmad Orabi-
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Chapter 26 - Chapter 26: Terms & Questions Points: 100...

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