Chapter 20 - Chapter 20: Terms & Questions Points: 100...

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Points: 100 Part 1: Terms Ottomans- These were Turkish people who came from the strong area of Asia Minor in the 1350’s. From there they conquered much of the Balkans, and they were unified under Mehmed I. In 1453 they captured Constantinople. Their empire was established in the Balkans and it included most of the Arab world. Bayazid- He was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire who was defeated when the armies of Timur came in 1402. His empire was in turmoil for almost a decade after that. Mehmed II- He was “The Conqueror.” He led his army of over 100,000 men to the city of Constantinople, which he took after seven weeks in 1453. He destroyed the remaining Byzantine Empire. Janissaries- This was a name for the troops that made up the imperial army from the mid- 15 th century. Most of these troops were taken as boys and forcibly conscripted. However, many parents gave them up to the Empire and they became “slaves.” Vizier- This man was the leader of the large bureaucracy, which led day-to-day administration. He led the imperial administration and starting in the 15 th century, he actually took more power then the sultan himself. Suleymaniye mosque – It was a mosque built by Suleyman I in the 1550’s. It is one of the largest doomed structures in the world, and one of the great engineering achievements of Islamic civilization. Sueymaniye the Magnificent (also spelled: Suleiman the Magnificent)- He lived from 1520 to 1566. He was one of the most successful sultans and the Suleymaniye mosque was built on his behalf. battle of Lepanto (see Chapter 17)- In this battle, the navy of the Ottoman Empire was defeated by the Spanish-directed fleet in 1571. This setback ended any chance the Muslim had of over powering the European naval powers. Safavid dynasty- Just like the Ottoman Empire, they were also a Turkic nomadic group. The ruling family came from the Sufi mystic group, but they espoused Shi’ism. The territory they conquered and the kingdom they established was equal to modern day Iran. It ended in 1722. Shi’ites/Sunnis (see Chapter 6)- The Shi’ites were people who supported the Umayyads; while the Sunnies were people who followed Ali. Both of these groups remain important today. This rivalry became one of the most pivotal episodes in the long history of the sectarian struggles. Sail-al-Din- He was a Sufis from the early 14 th century. He gave the Safavid dynasty its name. He started a militant campaign to purify and reform Islam, while spreading the Muslim teachings to the Turkic tribes of the same region. After the Mongol authority collapsed, he gained more support. “Red Heads”- This was the nickname for the Safavids’ followers because they wore something distinctive on their heads. They began to preach Shi’ite doctrines in around the
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1450’s and their enemies grew. Ismâ’il-
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Chapter 20 - Chapter 20: Terms & Questions Points: 100...

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