Chapter 19 - Chapter 19: Terms & Questions Points: 100...

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Points: 100 Part 1: Terms Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile- They were the monarchs of the largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia in the 15 th century. When Ferdinand married Isabella it created an alliance with Spain. They were responsible for the fall of Granada the last Muslim in 1492. They supported Christopher Columbus in his quest to reach the East Indies by sailed westward. Encomiendas- Any Spanish conqueror or settler that went over to the Mesoamerica and South America was given on of these grants. It gave them Indian laborers, and it was basis of the early forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies. Bartolomé de las Casas- The Indians were being mistreated and killed in 1510 and clerics and royal administrators were attempting to end this pain. He was a Dominican friar who was originally a conquistador. He initiated the struggle for justice. Hernán Cortés- He was an educated man with great leadership abilities. In 1519 he led an expedition with 600 men to the coast of Mexico after he had heard that there was a great kingdom inside Mexico. He set up a base at Veracruz and began to move inland. Battles were fought with Aztecs and after some victories they were able to join him to supplant their overlords. However, he had tricked these Aztecs and instead killed their leader. Eventually he took over the capital in 1521. Moctezuma II- He was the Aztec emperor that was captured and killed by Cortés after he tricked the Aztecs. New Spain- This was most of central Mexico that had been taken over by the Spanish in 1535. From here the Spanish pushed their conquest southward into Guatemala and Honduras and northward into the area of the nomadic Indians of north central Mexico. Francisco Pizarro- He led his mend to the conquest against the Inca Empire in 1535. The Incas were weakened by civil war and we easily tricked by the Spaniards. Just like the Aztecs Pizarro used Indian allies to capture the empire and capture its capital. Francisco Vácquez de Coronado- He was the leader of one of the most famous expeditions from 1540- 1542. He was sent out to look for the mythical cities of gold and on these quests he penetrated the southwestern United States as far as Kansas. Pedro de Valdivia- On the other end of the Americas this man conquered the Araucanian Indians of central Chile and set up Santiago in 1541. mita- This was the name for the forced laborer in Peru during the 16 th century. At times there were thousands of Indians that were working in the mines and on other projects. They were paid for this labor, but they were many abuses of the system by the local officials and working was disruptive to Indian life. Potosí- This was the largest mine in Upper Peru between 1545 and 1565. It alone produced 80 percent of the Peruvian silver. In the early 17 th century, more than 600,00 people lived and worked in the town. Huancavelica-
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Chapter 19 - Chapter 19: Terms & Questions Points: 100...

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