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Chapter 18 - Chapter 18 Terms Questions Points 100 Part 1...

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Chapter 18: Terms & Questions Points: 100 Part 1: Terms Ivan III (the Great)- He claimed succession from the Rurik dynasty and the old Kievan days and under his rule a large part of Russia was freed in 1462. He had a strong army and the government had a military emphasis as well. His loyalties with the Orthodox Christians to win support for his campaigns, and in 1480 Russians were freed from Mongol rule. Third Rome- Ivan the Great called his city this after his advisors encouraged him to succeed the Byzantium after its fall in 1453. Tsar (Czar)- After the fall of the Byzantium in 1453, Ivan the Great felt it was his duty to succeed this empire. He called himself a tsar after Caesar. Tsar means “autocrat of all the Russians.” Ivan IV (the Terrible)- He continued the policy of Russian expansion in 1533. He also placed emphasis on controlling the tsarist autocracy. He earned his nickname by killing many of the Russian nobles. Cossacks- After the Russian rulers had taken over the southern areas near the Caspian sea and east near the Ural mountains, they needed to fill these lands with peasants. These peasants were known as Cossacks. They knew agriculture, but also daring military feats. The expansion began in 1462 and continued until 1598. The Cossacks also took over the Caspian Sea and moved into western Siberia in the 16 th century. Boyars- Russian Nobles. However, they had far less power than most nobility in other parts of the world. Time of Troubles- After Ivan IV died, he left no heir and this period was known as the time of trouble because the boyars were fighting over who should rule and the Swedish and Polish were attacking their territories. However, in 1613 the boyars chose a member of the Romanov family as the tsar, and this period left no real constraints on Russia. Michael Romanov- He was the first Romanov and he began his rule in 1613 after Ivan IV died without an heir. He quickly restored internal unity, and he drove out the foreign invaders and continued the expansionist movement. Romanov dynasty- This dynasty began in 1613 after the boyars chose Michael Romanov as the new tsar. It would last until the great revolution in 1917. Alexis Romanov- He was Michael’s successor and gained power sometime in the middle of the 17 th century. He abolished the assembly of nobles and gained new powers over the church. He wanted to purge the church of errors that had crept in during Mongol times. He continued the policy that church was controlled by the state. Religious conservers were exiled to Siberia. Old Believers- These were Russians with dissident religious conservatives. They were exiled to Siberia where they maintained their religion and extended Russia’s colonizing activities. Peter I (the Great)- He was the son of Alexis Romanov and his rule began in 1689. He continued growth of absolutism and conquest, which included interest in changing select aspects of economy and culture thought imitation of Western European models. That was called Westernization and it began when he went to Europe incognito and worked for a shipping company. His rule finally ended in 1724.
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